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TABLE 1. Measurements (mm) of the mandible of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim.

mandible (1) mm
length of preserved symphysis (slightly incomplete) 240
height of corpus mandibulae below posterior end of m3 160
height of corpus mandibulae at level of foramen mentale 150
height of symphysis at symphyseal angle 180
min. width of symphysis 120

 

 

TABLE 2. Measurements (mm) of the molar dentition of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim.

molars length max width W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 height
m2 sin 105 84 73 ~80 ~84 - -
m2 dext - - - 80 83   -
m3 sin 164 90 83 90 86 77 54 (2nd)
m3 dext - - 82 88 - - 57 (2nd)
m2 + m3 267 -          

 

 

TABLE 3. Measurements (cm) of the long bones of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim (measurements taken according to Göhlich, 1998). Abbreviations: Cdia - circumference of diaphysis, Dcap - depth of caput femoris, Dd - distal depth, Ddia - depth of diaphysis, Dolec - depth of olecranon from proc. anconaeus, Dp - proximal depth, Dtr - depth of trochlea, GL - greatest length, GLc - greatest length incl. caput, GLmed - greatest length medially, GLtroch - greatest length incl. trochanter, Lcrepi - length of crista epicondyluslateralis, Li - length of incisura trochlearis, Llat - greatest length laterally, Lph - physiological length, Wcap - width of caput femoris, Wd - distal width, Wdia - width of diaphysis, Wdtr - width of distal trochlea, Wolec - width of olecranon, Wp - proximal width.

  Hum
dext
Hum
sin
Rad
dext
Rad
sin
Ulna
dext
Ulna
sin
Fem
dext
Fem
sin
Tib
dext
Tib
sin
Fib
sin
GL 107 ~101 ~77 79 89 92 125 127 80 85 ~77
Lph 97 100 - 73 74 76 119 123 - 74 -
GLc 98 101 - - - - - - - - -
GLtroch - - - - - - 119 - - - -
Llat - - - - - - - 117 - - -
GLmed - - - - - - - - 77 - -
Wp 30 ~28 - 11.5 - 30 - 19 30 31 -
Wcap - - - - - - 20.5 - - - -
Dcap - - - - - - 19.5 - - - -
Dp 34.5 36.5 - 9 - - - 19 - ~22 -
Li - - - - - 16 - - - - -
Wolec - - - - - ~19 - - - - -
Dolec - - - - 40 - - - - - -
Wdia 13 - 4 5 - - 18 18 12.5 13 2.5
Ddia - ~14 - 7 - - 10.5 10 12 10 3.8
Cdia 52.5 ~41 - 21 25 - 46.5 47 39 39 16
Wdtr 28 30 - - 15.5 15 27 21 21 - -
Wd - 34 13 12 ~20 - 28.5 31 - 22 11.5
Dd - ~20.5 17 20 - - - - 17.5 17 15
Lcrepi - 40 - - - - - - - - -
Dtr - - - - 14 14 29 29 - - -

 

 

TABLE 4.  Measurements (mm) of the proximal row of carpal bones of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim (measurements according to Göhlich, 1998). Indicated in square brackets is/are the bone/s to which the facet articulates. Abbreviations: DdFl - depth of dist. lateral facet [for Cu], DdFm - depth of dist. medial facet [for Cr, or Ci], Ddg - max. depth of Cu diagonal, DFd - depth of dist. facet [for CI-CIII, or CII-IV, or CIV], DFdl -depth of distolateral facet [for McV], DFl - depth of lateral facet [for Ci], dFl - minimal distance between lateral facets, dFm - minimal distance between medial facets, DFp - depth of proximal facet [for Ci, Rad., or Ulna], DpFl - depth of prox. lateral facet [for Cu], DpFm - depth of prox. medial facet [for Cr, or Ci], GD - greatest depth, GH - greatest height, GW - greatest width, HdFl - height of dist. lateral facet [for Cu], HdFm - height of dist. medial facet [for Cr, or Ci], HFdl - depth of distolateral facet for [McV], HFl - height of lateral facet [for Ci], HFpa - height of palmar facet [for Ca], HFpdo - width of proximodorsal facet [for Cu], Hm - medial height, HpFl - height of prox. lateral facet [for Cu], HpFm - height of prox. medial facet [for Cr, or Ci], WD - min. width of “diaphysis”, Wd - distal width, WFd - width of dist. facets [for CI-CIII, CII-IV, or CIV], WFp - width of the proximal facet [for Ci, Rad., or Ulna], WFpa - width of palmar facet [for Ca], WFpdo - width of proximodorsal facet [for Cu], Wp - proximal width.

Cr = Os carpi radiale
(scaphoideum)
Ci = Os carpi intermedium
(lunatum)
Cu = Os carpi ulnare
(cuneiforme)
Ca = Os carpi accessorium
(pisiforme)
GH 138 GH 99 GH 106 GH 172
GD 139 GD 166 GD 135 GD 76
GW 87 GW 144 GW 171 WD 63
- - - - Ddg 202 Wp 86
- - - - Hm 70 Wd 89
WFp [Ci] 31 WFp [Rad.] 131 WFp [Ulna] 143 WFp [Ulna] 80
DFp [Ci] 86 DFp [Rad.] 136 DFp [Ulna] 110 DFp [Ulna] 34
WFp [Rad.] 50 - - WFpa [Ca] 56 WFpdo [Cu] 86
DFp [Rad.] 90 - - HFpa [Ca] 24 HFpdo [Cu] 52
WFd [CI-CIII] 67 WFd [CII-IV] 139 WFd [CIV] 159 - -
DFd [CI-CIII] 95 DFd [CII-IV] 129 DFd [CIV] 120 - -
DFl [Ci] 87 DpFl [Cu] 60 DFdl [McV] 107 - -
HFl [Ci] 28 HpFl [Cu] 45 HFdl [McV] 64 - -
- - DdFl [Cu] 101 - - - -
- - HdFl [Cu] 35 - - - -
- - DpFm [Cr] 86 DpFm [Ci] 40 - -
- - HpFm [Cr] 39 HpFm [Ci] 15 - -
- - DdFm [Cr] 87 DdFm [Ci] 60 - -
- - HdFm [Cr] 25 HdFm [Ci] 25 - -
dFl 22 - - dFm 14 - -

 

 

TABLE 5. Measurements (mm) of the distal carpal bones of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim (measurements according to Göhlich, 1998). Indicated in square brackets is/are the bone/s to which the facet articulates. Abbreviations: DdFl - depth of dist. lateral facet [for CIV], DdFm - depth of dist. medial [for CIII], Ddg - diagonal depth, DFd - depth of distal facet [for McI, II, III or IV], DFld - depth of laterodistal facet [ for McII], DFl - depth of lateral facet [for CII, CIII], DFm - depth of medial facet [for CI, or CII], DFp - depth of proximal facet [for Cr, Cr+Ci, Ci+Cr+Cu, or Cu], DlFd - depth of lat. distal facet [for McV], DmFd - depthof med. distal facet [for McII, or III], DpFl - depth of prox. lateral facet [for CIV], DpFm - depth of medial facet [for CIII], GD - greatest depth, GH - greatest height, GW - greatest width, HdFl - height of dist. lateral facet [for CIV], HdFm - height of dist. medial facet [for CIII], Hdo - dorsal height, HdoFl - dorsal height of lateral facet [for CIII], HdoFm - dorsal height of medial facet [for CII], HFl - height of lateral facet [for CII], HFld - height of laterodistal facet [ for McII], HFm - height of medial facet [for CI], HpaFl - palmar height of lateral facet [for CIII], HpaFm - palmar height of medial facet [for CII], HpFl - height of prox. lateral facet [for ClV], HpFm - height of prox. medial facet [for CIII], minHpFl - minimal height of prox. lateral facet [for ClV], minHpFm - minimal height of prox. medial facet [for CIII], Wdo - dorsal width, WFd - width of distal facet [for McI, II, III or IV], WFp - width of proximal facet [for Cr, Cr+Ci, Ci+Cr+Cu, or Cu], WlFd - width of med. distal facet [for McV], WmFd - width of med. distal facet [for McII, or III], Wpa - palmar width.

CI - Os carpale primum
(trapezium)
CII - Os carpale secundum
(trapezoideum)
CIII - Os carpale tertium
(magnum)
CIV - Os carpale quartum
(unciforme)
GH 90 GH 69 GH 113 GH 125
- - - - Hdo 89 Hdo 95
GD 101 GD ~120 GD 153 GD 153
GW 61 GW 71 GW 107 GW 136
- - - - Wpa 105 - -
- - - - Wdo 95 Ddg 164
WFp [Cr] 29 WFp [Cr+Ci] 70-80 WFp [Ci+Cr+Cu] ? WFp [Cu] 135
DFp [Cr] 61 DFp [Cr+Ci] ~110 DFp [Ci+Cr+Cu] 123 DFp [Cu] 126
WFd [McI] 53 WFd [McII] 59 WFd [McIII] 59 WFd [McIV] 86
DFd [McI] 87 DFd [McII] ~105 DFd [McIII] 118 DFd [McIV] 114
- - - - WmFd [McII] 43 WmFd [McIII] 40
- - - - DmFd [McII] 111 DmFd [McIII] 117
- - - - - - WlFd [McV] 57
- - HpaFl [CIII] 43 - - DlFd [McV] 106
HFl [CII] 86 HdoFl [CIII] 70 HpFl [CIV] 59 - -
- - - - minHpFl [CIV] 33 - -
DFl [CII] 47 DFl [CIII] 67 DpFl [CIV] 120 - -
HFld [McII] 32 - - HdFl [CIV] 25 - -
DFld [McII] 33 - - DdFl [CIV] 111 - -
- - HFm [CI] 55 HpaFm [CII] 44 HpFm [CIII] 63
- - - - - - minHpFm [CIII] 39
- - - - HdoFm [CII] 67 DpFm [CIII] 123
- - DFm [CI] 71 DFm [CII] 124 HdFm [CIII] 29
- - - - - - DdFm [CIII] 116
GH/GD 88.5 % GH/GD ~57 % - - GH/GD 81.7 %
GW/GD 60.3 % GW/GD ~60 % - - GW/GD 88.7 %

 

 

TABLE 6. “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim: measurements (in mm) of metacarpalia (measurements according to Göhlich, 1998). Indicated in square brackets is/are the bone/s to which the facet articulates. Abbreviations: CD - least circumference of diaphysis, Dd - max. distal depth, DD - least depth of diaphysis, DFl - depth of lateral facet [for McIII, McIV or McV], DFm - depth of medial facet [for CI, McII, or McIII], DFp - depth of proximal facet [for CI, CII, CIII, or CIV], DlFp - depth of lateral proximal facet [for CIII or CV], DmFp - depth of medial proximal facet [for CII or CIII], Dp - max. proximal depth, GL - greatest length, HFl - height of lateral facet [for McIII, McIV or McV], HFm - height of medial facet [for CI, McII, or McIII], Wd - max. distal width, Wp - max. proximal width, WD - least width of diaphysis, WFp - width of proximal facet [for CI, CII, CIII, or CIV], WlFp - width of lateral proximal facet [for CIII or CV], WmFp - width of medial proximal facet [for CII or CIII], WTr - max width of distal trochlea.

  MC I   MC II   MC III   MC IV
GL 150 GL 194 GL 217 GL 198
Dp 93 Dp 110 Dp 123 Dp 114
Wp 71 Wp 99 Wp 100 Wp 96
WFp [CI] 68 WmFp [CII] 66 WmFp [CIII] 58 WFp [CIV] 86
DFp [CI] 85 DmFp [CII] 100 DmFp [CIII] 116 DFp [CIV] 111
    WIFp [CIII] 36 WIFp [CIV] 50    
    DFIp [CIII] 110 DFIp [CIV] 119    
    DFI [McIII] 36 DFI [McIV] 94 DFI [McV] 92
    HFI [McIII] 100 HFI [McIV] 42 HFI [McV] 53
    DFm [CI] 32 DFm [McII] 45 DFm [McIII] 97
    HFm [CI] 41 HFm [McII] 100 HFm [McIII] 42
WD 50 WD 79 WD 77 WD 76
DD 64 DD 61 DD 59 DD 61
CD 194 CD 217 CD 227 CD 241
Wd 79 Wd 115 Wd 103 Wd 115
Dd 77 Dd 100 Dd 118 Dd 97
WTr - WTr 92 WTr 95 WTr 104

 

 

TABLE 7. Comparative measurements of lower m3 of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim with values of “Mammut” borsoni and of Zygolophodon turicensis from selected European localities.

Locality Taxon max length max width L/W Wx100/L Source
Strekov (SK), MN17 “M.” borsoni 160* 85 1.89 53 SNM; Holec, 1985
Strekov (SK), MN17 “M.” borsoni 147.6 87.1 1.69 59 Schmidt-Holouzka, 1970
Strekov (SK), MN17 “M.” borsoni 215 102.2 2.06 48 Holec, 1985
Nova Vieska (SK) MN17 “M.” borsoni 201 99 2.03 49 SNM,
Kaltensundheim (DE), MN16-17 “M.” borsoni 164 90 2.73 36 own measurements
Sülzfeld (DE) “M.” borsoni 172 103 1.66 60 own measurements
Sülzfeld (DE) “M.” borsoni 187 104 1.80 55 own measurements
Hajnáčka (SK), MN 16a “M.” borsoni 196 104 1.88 53 Fejfar, 1964
Hajnáčka (SK), MN16a “M.” borsoni 195 94 2.07 48 Schlesinger, 1922
Vialette (FR), MN16 “M.” borsoni 181 104 1.74 57 own measurements, and Lortet and Chantre, 1878
Vialette (FR), MN16 “M.” borsoni 195 95 1.87 53 Lortet and Chantre, 1878
Milia (GR), MN15 “M.” borsoni 185 104.3 1.77 56 Tsoukala and Mol, 2016
Milia (GR), MN15 “M.” borsoni 181 105 1.72 58 Tsoukala and Mol, 2016
Milia (GR), MN15 “M.” borsoni 208.4 113.5 1.84 54 Tsoukala and Mol, 2016
Milia (GR), MN15 “M.” borsoni 209.4 115 1.82 55 Tsoukala and Mol, 2016
Milia (GR), MN15 “M.” borsoni 196 104 1.88 53 Tsoukala and Mol, 2016
Milia (GR), MN15 “M.” borsoni 198 107 1.85 54 Tsoukala and Mol, 2016
Audrey. (Haute-Saone) (FR), Pliocene “M.” borsoni 177 97 1.82 55 own measurements
Buisson-la-Ville near Audrey (FR), Pliocene “M.” borsoni 190 99.5 1.90 52 own measurements
Gros Roland near Issoire (FR), Pliocene “M.” borsoni 181 96 1.88 53 own measurements
Grimolais (FR), Pliocene “M.” borsoni 193 106 1.82 55 own measurements, and Lortet and Chantre, 1878
Wörth am Rhein (DE), Pliozän “M.” borsoni 158 85 1.85 54 Maße R. Ziegler (SMNS)
Alt-Lichtenwarth (AT), MN14-16 “M.” borsoni 198.5 102 1.95 51 Thenius, 1987
Ahmatovo (BUL), Levantin “M.” obliquelophus 176 95 1.85 54 Nikolov and Kovačev, 1966
Ahmatovo (BUL), Levantin “M.” obliquelophus 167 89 1.88 53 Nikolov and Kovačev, 1966
  Z. turicensis 159 75 2.12 47 Göhlich, 1998
Wolkersdorf (Rochusberg) (AT), MN9-11 Z. turicensis 160 81 1.80 56 own measurements
Mikulov (Czujan's pit), MN7/8 Z. turicensis 154 71 2.17 46 own measurements
Mikulov (Czujan's pit), MN7/8 Z. turicensis 147 78 1.88 53 own measurements
Mikulov (Czujan's pit), MN7/8 Z. turicensis (150) (75) 2 5 own measurements
Mikulov (Czujan's pit), MN7/8 Z. turicensis 168 79 2.13 47 own measurements
Mikulov (Czujan's pit), MN7/8 Z. turicensis 171 73 2.34 42 own measurements
Mikulov (Czujan's pit,) MN7/8 Z. turicensis 166 73 22.27 44 own measurements
Freising (DE), MN6-7/8 Z. turicensis 147 87 1.69 59 Lehmann, 1950
Freising (DE), MN6-7/8 Z. turicensis 141 76 1.85 54 Lehmann, 1950
Tutzing (DE), MN6-7/8 Z. turicensis 155 88 1.76 57 Lehmann, 1950
Tutzing (DE), MN6-7/8 Z. turicensis 155 88 1.76 57 Lehmann, 1950
Simorre (FR), MN6-MN7/8 Z. turicensis 156 69 2.26 44 Tassy, 1977
Malartic (FR), MN6 Z. turicensis 202 81 2.49 40 Tassy, 1977
Malartic (FR,) MN6 Z. turicensis 151 69 2.19 46 Tassy, 1977
Malartic (FR,) MN6 Z. turicensis 158 64 2.47 40 Tassy, 1977
Malartic (FR), MN6 Z. turicensis 204 94 2.17 46 Tassy, 1977
Malartic (FR), MN6 Z. turicensis 201 96 2.09 48 Tassy, 1977
Malartic (FR), MN6 Z. turicensis 159 75 2.12 47 Tassy, 1977
Kalksburg (AT), MN5-6 Z. turicensis 165 81 2.04 49 Schlesinger, 1917
Poysdorf (AT), MN5-6 Z. turicensis 211 87 2.42 41 Schlesinger, 1917
Klein-Hadersdorf (AT), ?MN5-6 Z. turicensis 156 65 2.40 42 Schlesinger, 1917
Rajégats (FR), MN6 Z. turicensis 204 94 2.17 46 Tassy, 1985
Rajégats (FR), MN6 Z. turicensis 201 96 2.13 47 Tassy, 1985
Hidvég (SK) Z. turicensis 199 100 1.99 50 Holec, 1985
Szabadka (SK) Z. turicensis 160 85 1.88 53 Holec, 1985
Vácz (SK) Z. turicensis 200 90 2.22 45 Holec, 1985
Turgai (KAS) Early Miocene Z. atavus 163 90 1.81 55 Borissiak, 1936
Turgai (KAS) Early Miocene Z. atavus 172 95 1.81 55 Borissiak, 1936

 

 

TABLE 8. Mandible measurements (mm) of Mammutidae and comparison of the symphysis length in relation to the length of m2+m3.

locality taxon length of symphysis length m2+m3 mandibular tusk ratio
symph/
m2+m3
source
Fort Wayne, USA (Buesching Mastodon) M. americanum 140 235 lacking 0.59 UMORF
Hyde Park, USA M. americanum 135 273 lacking 0,49 Fisher 2008
D’Autrey, FR “M.” borsoni 110 270 present 0,41 Bergouniou and Crouzel 1961, own measurements
Kaltensundheim, DE “M.” borsoni ~245 266 present 0.92 this study
Milia, GR “M.” borsoni, MIL 143 310 ventral
280 dorsal
310 present 1.00
0.9
Tsoukala 2000, tab. 1
Milia, GR “M.” borsoni, MIL 562/563 ca. 190 325 alveolus present 0,58 Tsoukala and Mol 2016, table 4
Vialette (juv.), FR “M.” borsoni very brevirostrine (m1+2) lacking 0.68 Lortet and Chantre 1878
Farladani, MOL “M.” borsoni -- -- present 0.97 Pavlow 1893, ratio measured from plate 3, figure 5
Nikolajew, UA “M.” borsoni very brevirostrine ca. 330 present ca.0.4 Brandt 1860 (measured from plate 1), Pavlow 1894
Shanxi (Shansi), CHN M.” borsoni (= Z. shansiensis), juv. symphysis restored m1-m3
415
  0.54 Hopwood 1935, plate 6, figure 5, ratio measured from Tobien 1988, figure 63b
Belka, UA “T.” turicensis (=obliquelophus or “M.” borsoni) very juvenile -- present 0,69 Korotkevich 1988, figure 25
Ahmatovo, BUL “M.” obliquelophus 350 ca. 271 alveolus present 1.3 Nikolov and Kovačev1966, Markov 2008
Romanovka, UA “M.” obliquelophus 296 sin/dext 294/287 present 1.01-1.03 Mucha 1980
Balta?, Podolia, UA “M.” praetypicum 305 292 present 1.04 Kubiak 1972
Petchana, Podolia, UA “M.” ohioticus (= borsoni) short -- lacking, no alveolus -- Pavlow 1894
Freising, DE Z. turicensis symphysis restored -- present 0.83 Lehmann, 1950, ratio measured from plate 14, figure 26
Wolkersdorf, AT Z. turicensis ca. 120 266 lacking 0.45 own measurements
Villefranched’Astarac, FR Z. turicensis ca. 410,  but symphysis largely restored 250 present 1.64 Pontier 1926, measured from plate 8.
Duranthon et al. 1995
Turgai, KAS Z. “atavus” -- sin/dext 292/281 present 1.51 Borissiak 1936, ratio measured, from plate 1, figure 4
Tung Gur, CHN Z. gobiensis 420 320 present 1.31 Tobien et al. 1988, measured from figure 39

 

 

TABLE 9. Prediction of the body mass (t) of the individual of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim according to different methods. A: Calculated reconstruction of body mass (t) for the individual of Z. borsoni from Kaltensundheim based on different measurements of long bones, using the formula provided by Christiansen (2004): log Body mass = a + b (log x), where x is the relevant measurement. We used those measurements that were claimed by Christiansen (2004: 533) to be the most significant. The formula was deduced by Christiansen (2004) based on extant elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana), and thus the results for Zygolophodon borsoni might deviate due to somewhat different body/bone proportions. B: Reconstruction of body mass (t) using the equations provided by Larramendi (2016: 552) for adult Zygolophodon borsoni. Besides the estimated shoulder height of 300 cm, values for a smaller and a larger shoulder height were calculated.

A Bone, measurement mm log10 formula from Christiansen 2004 Body mass
Log10
Body mass
in tons
Humerus dext,
min. circumference
524 2.7193 -1.598 + 2.062 (log x) 4.009 10.2
Humerus dext,
min. depth diaphysis
140  2.1461 -0.503 + 2.009 (log x) 3.8 6.4
Radius sin,
max. length
790 2.8976 -3.838 + 2.634 (log x) 3.794 6.2
Radius sin
min. circumference
210  2.3222 -0.754 + 2.001 (log x) 4.646 6.2
Ulna dext,
length
890 2.949 -4.135 + 2.647 (log x) 3.672 4.7
Ulna dext,
min. circumference
250 2.3979 -1.349 + 2.022 (log x) 3.499 3.2
Femur sin,
physiol. length
1230 3.0899 −5.568 + 3.036 (log x) 3.812 6.5
Femur dext,
depth diaph.
100 2 -0.912 + 2.315 (log x) 3.718 5.2
Tibia sin,
physiol. length
740 2.8692 −3.064 + 2.378 (log x) 3.759 5.7
Tibia sin,
max. length
850 2.9294 −3.064 + 2.378 (log x) 3.902 7.9
Tibia dext,
min. circumference
390 2.5910 -2.724 + 2.647 (log x) 4.135 13.6
Mean         6.8
B Shoulder height in cm formula from Larramendi 2016 Body mass in tons
290 cm   6.565
300 cm BM = 3.11 × 10-3 × SH2.569 7.185
320 cm   8.481

 

 

TABLE 10. Selected measurements and calculated shoulder height (cm) of the long bones of “Mammut” borsoni from Kaltensundheim, in comparison to different individuals from Milia (GR). (Data from Milia: Tsoukala and Mol, 2016; Larramendi, 2016).

  Kaltensundheim   Milia (GR)
  max length physiol.
length
min. circumf.   Indiv 1
max length
Indiv. 2a
max. length
Indiv 2b
max length
Indiv. 5
max. length
Scapula                
Humerus dext 107 97 52,5          
Humerus sin ~101 100     125 108   122.5
Radius dext ~77              
Radius sin 79 73 21         97
Ulna dext 89 74 25          
Ulna sin 92 76            
MC III                
Femur dext 125 119 46,5          
Femur sin 127 123 47       150  
Tibia dext 80   39   87      
Tibia sin 85 74 39          
Skeletal shoulder height 301       390 390   410
Living shoulder height 318              

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