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APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1. Information on the hipparionin sample.

APPENDIX 1.1. Western Mediterranean

The Vallesian hipparionins from the western Mediterranean area come from the fossil sites of Can Llobateres, Can Poncic and Santiga. All three localities are situated on the Vallès-Penedès Basin (northeastern Iberian Peninsula) (Figure 1, main text) and are placed on medial to distal facies of alluvial origin (Casanovas-Vilar et al., 2014). The classical fossil site of Can Llobateres registers the early/late Vallesian (MN9/MN10) transition and has been divided into two different levels with estimated ages of 9.72 Ma and 9.65 Ma, respectively (Casanovas-Vilar et al., 2011). Both Can Poncic and Santiga were dated on the early Vallesian with an estimated age of 10.4 to 9.9 Ma (Casanovas-Vilar et al., 2011). Based on a Vallesian hipparionin cranium of the Vallès-Penedès, Pirlot (1956) established the species Hipparion catalaunicum. Thereafter, Vallesian hipparionins from this basin have been generally assigned to this taxon. The similarities between this form with the central European Hipparion primigenium [= Hippotherium primigenium sensu Bernor et al. (1996)] (Forsten, 1968; Woodburne and Bernor, 1980) have led some authors to include it within the H. primigenium species (Forsten, 1968; Alberdi, 1974; Tomàs et al., 2010), and differentiate it at subspecific level (Alberdi, 1974; Tomàs et al., 2010). The presence of one single large species have been proposed in Can Poncic and Can Llobateres (Scott et al., 2013). We consider both populations to pertain to the H. primigenium catalaunicum subspecies following Tomàs et al. (2010). In Santiga, however, it is evident that at least two species are present, an abundant medium-sized to small hipparionin and a much rarer large one (Forsten, 1997). Although unnamed, the small/medium-sized hipparionin from Santiga represent a different taxon compared to larger Vallesian forms, although it might also be related to the primigenium group. Here we refer to this form as Hipparion sp. (? primigenium small). Due to the lack of dentognathic material of the large species from Santiga, we only analyze the microwear texture of the small hipparionin from this site.

The Turolian material from this area come from the localities of Concud, El Arquillo and Venta del Moro. The classical fossil sites from Concud and El Arquillo are located in the Teruel Basin (central eastern Iberian Peninsula), and Venta del Moro in the Cabriel Basin (central eastern Iberian Peninsula) (Figure 1, main text). Both Concud and Venta del Moro sites were formed in marginal lacustrine environments with abundant vegetation (Montoya et al., 2006; Pesquero et al., 2013). The locality of Concud (MN12) has an estimated age of 7.2-7.1 Ma, while El Arquillo and Venta del Moro are dated on the MN13 with estimated ages of 6.2 Ma (van Dam et al., 2001) and 5.8-5.5 Ma (Opdyke et al., 1997), respectively. Recently, however, a magnetostratigraphic study by Gibert et al. 2013 dated Venta del Moro at 6.23 Ma. Still, El Arquillo site is deemed to be older because of the absence of Paraethomys miocaenicus, similarly to Las Casiones, which was dated at 6.33 Ma (van Dam, 1997; van Dam et al., 2006). During the middle Turolian (MN12) the most common species was Hipparion concudense, a medium to large sized hipparionin [178 kg (Pesquero and Alberdi, 2012)] that is very abundant in Concud (Pesquero and Alberdi, 2012). On the other hand, at least three different sized hipparionins inhabited the Teruel Basin during the late Turolian (MN13). The three sympatric taxa identified in El Arquillo have been referred to Hipparion periafricanum, Hipparion gromovae, and H. primigenium truyolsi (Alberdi, 1974). The two dwarf hipparionins of this site, H. periafricanum and H. gromovae, are the smallest members of this clade in the Iberian Peninsula (Ortiz-Jaureguizar and Alberdi, 2003; Pesquero, 2003). H. primigenium truyolsi, on the other hand, was much larger (Ortiz-Jaureguizar and Alberdi, 2003). An association of three sympatric forms has also been reported in the Venta del Moro. Morphometric comparisons of the most common hipparionin from this site has allowed its assignment to the species Hipparion matthewi (Pesquero et al., 2007), which is also present in eastern Mediterranean basins. This identification, however, has recently been questioned (Koufos, 2016b; Koufos and Vlachou, 2016), so here we decided to refer this medium-sized hipparionin as H. cf. matthewi and to differentiate it from the eastern Mediterranean forms. Pesquero et al. (2007), based on the material from Venta del Moro, also proposed the synonymy of H. gromovae and H. matthewi. Because we are interested in testing dietary differences related to size, the body mass differences between H. gromovae from El Arquillo (84 kg) and H. cf. matthewi from Venta del Moro (123 kg) (Table 1, main text), together with the lack of cranial traits to compare, make us consider both populations two different sets of data. Besides H. cf. matthewi, there are two other hipparionins present in Venta del Moro: a much rarer large form determined as H. primigenium, and a probable smaller subspecies of H. cf. matthewi (Pesquero et al., 2007). Due to the scarcity of remains assigned to these two last forms, here we only analyze the microwear texture of the medium-sized H. cf. matthewi from Venta del Moro. All the hipparionin teeth and mandibles from western Mediterranean sites are stored at the collections of the Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont (ICP), Barcelona, and of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN), Madrid.

APPENDIX 1.2. Balkans

The Vallesian hipparionins pertain to the localities of Ravin de la Pluie and Pentalophos from the Axios Valley (southeastern Balkan Peninsula), and to Nikiti-1, which is located in the Chalkidiki Peninsula (southeastern Balkan Peninsula) (Figure 1, main text). Ravin de la Pluie was dated to the lower part of the late Vallesian (MN10) with an estimated age of ~9.3 Ma based on a combination of biochronological and paleomagnetostratigraphical data (Sen et al., 2000; Koufos, 2006a). Nikiti-1 is correlated based on its mammalian assemblage to the upper part of the late Vallesian with an estimated age ranging from 9.3 to 8.7 Ma (Koufos, 2006b, 2016a). Pentalophos’ chronology is not clear, although its faunal association indicates that it could be slightly older than Ravin de la Pluie (Koufos, 2006a, 2006b, 2013). Following Vlachou (2013), two hipparionin morphotypes were present in Macedonia during the Vallesian: the small macedonicum and the large primigenium morphotype. The material of the small macedonicum morphotype has been assigned to the Hipparion macedonicum species, while the larger hipparionins of the primigenium morphotype have been referred to Hipparion aff. giganteum in Nikiti-1, and to Hipparion cf. sebastopolitanum in Pentalophos and Ravin de la Pluie (Koufos et al., 2016; Vlachou, 2013).

Numerous Turolian localities have yielded rich hipparionin assemblages in the Balkan region. The Turolian sample analyzed here comes from the localities of Nikiti-2, Ravin des Zouaves-5, Hadjidimovo, Perivolaki and Dytiko. The oldest fossil site is Nikiti-2 (Chalkidiki Peninsula) (Figure 1, main text), dated to the early Turolian (MN11) with an age comprised between 8.7-8.2 Ma (Koufos, 2016a). Four different hipparionins are recognized here: two small taxa of the macedonicum morphotype (Hipparion sithonis and H. macedonicum), a larger form that pertains to the dietrichi morphotype (Hipparion philippus), and a rare and large hipparionin of the proboscideum group identified as Hipparion cf. proboscideum (Vlachou, 2013; Koufos and Vlachou, 2016). Ravin des Zouaves-5 (Axios Valley) is also an early Turolian site (MN11) dated at ~8.2 Ma (Koufos, 2006b). In this locality, Koufos and Vlachou (2019) reported five different taxa: H. macedonicum and H. sithonis of the macedonicum morphotype, H. proboscideum and H. cf. mediterraneum of the proboscideum morphotype, and H. philippus of the dietrichi morphotype. From this site, here we analyzed mainly specimens of H. macedonicum due to their availability. Hadjidimovo locality (Mesta Valley, central Balkan Peninsula) (Figure 1, main text) was dated between the early-middle Turolian (MN11-MN12) with an estimated age of ~7.5 Ma (Spassov, 2002). Three species have been identified, although the major bulk of the material corresponds to the two large species Hipparion mediterraneum [ proboscideum morphotype sensu Vlachou (2013)] and Hipparion brachypus [ primigenium morphotype sensu Vlachou (2013)] (Hristova, 2009), which are the species herein analyzed. We also sampled the hipparionins from Perivolaki (Thessaly, southeastern Balkan Peninsula) (Figure 1, main text), a site dated on the upper middle Turolian (MN12) with an estimated age of 7.3-7.1 Ma (Koufos, 2006a, 2006b). In Perivolaki, three different species are found: H. macedonicum, H. philippus and H. proboscideum; forming a similar association than other early and middle Turolian sites from the Axios Valley. Finally, the youngest locality is represented by the three Dytiko sites (DKO, DTK, DIT; Axios Valley) (Figure 1, main text), which were dated to the late Turolian (MN13) (Koufos, 2006b). Three hipparionin taxa are identified in the Dytiko faunal assemblage: the large Hipparion aff. platygenys [ dietrichi morphotype sensu Vlachou (2013)], the small Hipparion cf. macedonicum, and a medium-sized rare form resembling to Hipparion moldavicum and tentatively assigned to the proboscideum morphotype (Vlachou, 2013). Because of the scarcity of some of the material from the species mentioned, we did not consider for analysis the proboscideum group from Nikiti-2 nor from the Dytiko sites, and only include one specimen from Ravin des Zouaves-5. The fossil material analyzed here from Hadjidimovo is stored at the Asenovgrad Museum (a division of the National Museum of Natural History of Sofia, Bulgaria) and the specimens from the Greek localities come from the Laboratory of Geology and Paleontology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

APPENDIX 1.3. Western Anatolia

The Turolian hipparionins from the western Anatolian bioprovince come from the localities of Şerefköy-2, Gülpınar and the Samos new collections. The specimens from Samos pertain to the MTLA/B sites found in the Adrianos ravine during the recent excavations (Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island) (Figure 1, main text), which were dated on the late middle Turolian (~7.1 Ma) (Koufos et al., 2009; Vlachou and Koufos, 2009). At least five hipparionin taxa pertaining to four different morphotypes are present there: H. cf. matthewi (macedonicum morphotype), Hipparion aff. forstenae (proboscideum morphotype), H. cf. proboscideum (proboscideum morphotype), H. dietrichi (dietrichi morphotype) and H. brachypus (primigenium morphotype) (Vlachou and Koufos, 2009; Vlachou, 2013). In the Anatolian Peninsula, the locality of Şerefköy-2 (Muğla Yatağan Basin, western Anatolia) (Figure 1, main text) has been referred to the middle Turolian (MN12) based on its fossil mammal assemblage (Kaya et al., 2012). Four to five different hipparionin forms might be present in this site, a rare and large species similar to H. brachypus, two medium hipparionins broadly referred as Hipparion, and two small forms only identified as belonging to the Cremohipparion group [sensu Bernor et al. (1996)] (Kaya et al., 2012). The medium-sized hipparionins show similarities to H. mediterraneum specimens (Kaya et al., 2012). In consequence, we included here the medium sized forms to the proboscideum group. We further relate the small hipparionins of Şerefköy-2 to the species H. matthewi, as it has been done with the majority of the small-sized forms from eastern Mediterranean basins (Koufos, 2016b), thus including them to the macedonicum group defined by Vlachou (2013). Finally, Gülpınar fossil site is located on the Biga Peninsula (northwestern Anatolia) (Figure 1, main text) and corresponds to a sedimentary sequence of fluvial origin dated on early-middle Turolian (MN11-MN12) (Forsten and Kaya, 1995; Koufos et al., 2018). Three different forms have been distinguished in Gülpınar. The smallest hipparionin has been identified as H. cf. matthewi (macedonicum morphotype) and the medium-sized form show affinities to H. dietrichi from the classic Samos quarries (Forsten and Kaya, 1995). Due to these similarities, here we include this form to the dietrichi group defined by Vlachou (2013). The larger hipparionin remains from Gülpınar have not been determined. We did not analyze the dental microwear textures of the largest taxon--usually related to H. brachypus (Vlachou and Koufos, 2009; Kaya et al., 2012)--from the western Anatolian fossil sites due to its scarcity. The material from Samos is stored at the Paleontological Museum of Mytilinii, Samos, Greece, and the material from continental Anatolian sites at the Natural History Museum of Ege University of Izmir, Turkey.

APPENDIX 1.4. References

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Bernor, R.L., Koufos, G.D., Woodburne, M.O., and Fortelius, M. 1996. The evolutionary history and biochronology of European and Southwest Asian Late Miocene and Pliocene hipparionine horses, p. 307-338. In Bernor, R.L., Fahlbusch, V., and Mittmann, H.-W. (eds.), The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. Columbia University Press, New York.

Casanovas-Vilar, I., Alba, D.M., Garcés, M., Robles, J.M., and Moyà-Solà, S. 2011. Updated chronology for the Miocene hominoid radiation in Western Eurasia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108:5554-9. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1018562108

Casanovas-Vilar, I., Van den Hoek Ostende, L.W., Furió, M., and Madern, P.A. 2014. The range and extent of the Vallesian Crisis (Late Miocene): New prospects based on the micromammal record from the Vallès-Penedès basin (Catalonia, Spain). Journal of Iberian Geology, 40:29-48. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_JIGE.2014.v40.n1.44086

Forsten, A. 1968. Revision of the palearctic Hipparion. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 119:1-134.

Forsten, A. 1997. Hipparion from Santiga (Spain) and its biostratigraphic significance. Paleontologia i Evolució, 30-31:77-82.

Forsten, A. and Kaya, T. 1995. The hipparions (Mammalia, Equidae) from Gülpinar (Canakkale, Turkey). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 69:491-501. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02987809

Gibert, L., Scott, R., G., Montoya, P., Ruiz-Sánchez, J.F., Morales, J., Luque, L., Abella, J. and Lería, M. 2013. Evidence for an African-Iberian mammal dispersal during the pre-evaporitic Messinian. Geology, 41:691-694. https://doi.org/10.1130/g34164.1

Hristova, L. 2009. Ontogeny and variability in the cheek region of hipparions from the late Miocene locality of Hadzhidimovo-1, southwest Bulgaria. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 115:125-132. https://doi.org/10.13130/2039-4942/5924

Kaya, T., Mayda, S., Kostopoulos, D.S., Alcicek, M.C., Merceron, G., Tan, A., Karakutuk, S., Giesler, A.K., and Scott, R.S. 2012. Şerefköy-2, a new Late Miocene mammal locality from the Yataĝan Formation, Muĝla, SW Turkey. Comptes Rendus - Palevol,11:5-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2011.09.001

Koufos, G.D. 2006a. Palaeoecology and chronology of the Vallesian (late Miocene) in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 234:127-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.01.014

Koufos, G.D. 2006b. The Neogene mammal localities of Greece: Faunas, chronology and biostratigraphy. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, 41:183-214.

Koufos, G.D. 2013. Neogene mammal biostratigraphy and chronology of Greece, p. 595-621. In Wang, X., Flynn, L.J., and Fortelius, M. (eds.), Fossil Mammals of Asia--Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology. Columbia University Press, New York.

Koufos, G.D. 2016a. History, stratigraphy and fossiliferous sites, p. 3-10. In Koufos G.D. and Kostopoulos, D.S. (eds.), Palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Vertebrate Localities of Nikiti (Chalkidiki Peninsula, Macedonia, Greece).Geobios, 49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2016.01

Koufos, G.D. 2016b. Hipparion macedonicum revisited: New data on evolution of hipparionine horses from the Late Miocene of Greece. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61:519-536. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00169.2015

Koufos, G.D., Kostopoulos, D.S., and Merceron, G. 2009. Palaeoecology - Palaeobiogeography, p. 409-430. In Koufos, G.D. and Nagel, D. (eds.), The late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: new collection. Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31.

Koufos, G.D., Kostopoulos, D.S., and Vlachou, T.D. 2016. Revision of the Nikiti 1 (NKT) fauna with description of new material, p. 11-22. In Koufos G.D. and Kostopoulos, D.S. (eds.), Palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Vertebrate Localities of Nikiti (Chalkidiki Peninsula, Macedonia, Greece).Geobios, 49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2016.01.006

Koufos, G.D., Mayda, S., and Kaya, T. 2018. New carnivoran remains from the Late Miocene of Turkey. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 92:131-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-017-0376-2

Koufos, G.D., Vlachou, T.D., 2016. Equidae, p. 85-118. In Koufos G.D. and Kostopoulos, D.S. (eds.), Palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Vertebrate Localities of Nikiti (Chalkidiki Peninsula, Macedonia, Greece).Geobios, 49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2016.01.001

Koufos, G.D. and Vlachou, T.D. 2019. New material and revision of hipparions from the Upper Miocene locality Ravin des Zouaves-5, RZO of Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece). Geobios, 57:33-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2019.10.004

Montoya, P., Morales, J., Robles, F., Abella, J., Benavent, J. V, Marín, M. D., and Ruiz Sánchez, F.J. 2006. Las nuevas excavaciones (1995-2006) en el yacimiento del Mioceno final de Venta del Moro, Valencia. Estudios Geológicos, 62:313-326.

Opdyke, N., Mein, P., Lindsay, E., Perez-Gonzales, A., Moissenet, E., and Norton, V.L. 1997. Continental deposits, magnetostratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology, late Neogene of eastern Spain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 133:129-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(97)00080-1

Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E. and Alberdi, M.T. 2003. El patrón de cambios en la masa corporal de los Hipparionini (Perissodactyla, Equidae) de la Península Ibérica durante el Mioceno superior-Plioceno superior. Coloquios de Paleontología, 1:499-509.

Pesquero, M.D. 2003. Hipparion del Turoliense superior de Las Casiones (Fosa de Teruel). Coloquios de Paleontología, Volumen Ex:511-548.

Pesquero, M.D. and Alberdi, M.T. 2012. New evidence of conspecificity between Hipparion primigenium melendezi Alberdi, 1974 from Los Valles de Fuentidueña (Segovia) and Hipparion concudense concudense Pirlot, 1956 from Concud (Teruel) Spain. Estudios Geológicos 68:247-260. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40499.152

Pesquero, M.D., Alberdi, M.T., and Montoya, P. 2007. Hipparion (Equidae, Mammalia) from Venta del Moro (Valencia Province, Spain). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen, 243:273-297. https://doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2007/0243-0273

Pesquero, M.D., Alcalá, L., and Fernández-Jalvo, Y. 2013. Taphonomy of the reference Miocene vertebrate mammal site of Cerro de la Garita, Spain. Lethaia 46:378-398. https://doi.org/10.1111/let.12016

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Sen, S., Kondopoulou, D., and de Bonis, L. 2000. Magnetostratigraphy of Late Miocene continental deposits of the Lower Axios valley, Macedonia, Geological Society of Greece. Special Publications, 9:197-206.

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van Dam, J., Abdul Aziz, H., Álvarez Sierra, M.A., Hilgen, F.J., Van Den Hoek Ostende, L.W., Lourens, L.J., Mein, P., Van Der Meulen, A.J., and Pelaez-Campomanes, P., 2006. Long-period astronomical forcing of mammal turnover. Nature, 443:687-691. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05163

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APPENDIX 2. Raw data of all the hipparionin sample analyzed.

Orlandi-Oliveras, Guillem (2022), “Appendices for: Feeding strategies of circum-Mediterranean hipparionins during the late Miocene: exploring dietary preferences related to size through Dental Microwear Analysis”, Mendeley Data, V1. https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/np65bh8tgw/2

 

 

APPENDIX 3. Photosimulations of the microwear surfaces.

Orlandi-Oliveras, Guillem (2022), “Appendices for: Feeding strategies of circum-Mediterranean hipparionins during the late Miocene: exploring dietary preferences related to size through Dental Microwear Analysis”, Mendeley Data, V1. https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/np65bh8tgw/2

 

 

APPENDIX 4.

Results of the Principal Component Analysis performed with the ten settings used to calculate HAsfc (4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, and 121 cells). Percentage of variance explained by the principal component and the contribution of each setting to the principal components are shown.

Component % of variance H4 H9 H16 H25 H36 H49 H64 H81 H100 H121
PC1 84.31 5.11 8.26 9.87 10.69 11.06 11.09 11.15 10.99 10.89 10.89
PC2 7.88 60.94 15.86 3.57 0.02 0.62 2.46 2.68 4.66 5.18 4.03

 

 

APPENDIX 5. Metapodial measures and body mass estimations.

Orlandi-Oliveras, Guillem (2022), “Appendices for: Feeding strategies of circum-Mediterranean hipparionins during the late Miocene: exploring dietary preferences related to size through Dental Microwear Analysis”, Mendeley Data, V1.  https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/np65bh8tgw/2

 

 

APPENDIX 6. Linear regressions on DMT parameters versus body mass.

APPENDIX 6.1. Linear regressions of microwear textural parameters and the calculated principal component against body mass for all hipparionins. Correlation statistics included in each graph. A: Regression of the Asfc values. B: epLsar. C: HAsfc. D: Tfv. E: PC1.

 app 6 1

 

 

APPENDIX 6.2. Linear regressions of microwear textural parameters and the calculated principal component against body mass for western Mediterranean hipparionins. Correlation statistics included in each graph. A: Regression of the Asfc values. B: epLsar. C: HAsfc. D: Tfv. E: PC1.

app 6 2

 

 

 

APPENDIX 6.3. Linear regressions of microwear textural parameters and the calculated principal component against body mass for hipparionins from the Balkans. Correlation statistics included in each graph. A: Regression of the Asfc values. B: epLsar. C: HAsfc. D: Tfv. E: PC1.

app 6 3

 

 

APPENDIX 6.4. Linear regressions of microwear textural parameters and the calculated principal component against body mass for western Anatolian hipparionins. Correlation statistics included in each graph. A: Regression of the Asfc values. B: epLsar. C: HAsfc. D: Tfv. E: PC1.

app 6 4

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons with Turolian hipparionin data.

APPENDIX 7.1. Post-hoc tests on ranked complexity (Asfc). P-values from HSD test are depicted above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it. Significant p-values represented in bold.

BIOPROVINCE Western Mediterranean Balkans Western Anatolia
Western Mediterranean   < 0.001 0.001
Balkans < 0.001   0.011
Western Anatolia < 0.001 0.004  

 

 

APPENDIX 7.2. Post-hoc tests on ranked heterogeneity of complexity (HAsfc). P-values from HSD test are depicted above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it. Significant p-values represented in bold.

BIOPROVINCE Western Mediterranean Balkans Western Anatolia
Western Mediterranean   0.049 0.935
Balkans 0.019   0.189
Western Anatolia 0.727 0.081  

 

APPENDIX 7.3. Summary of post-hoc tests on ranked parameters showing significant differences between the Turolian hipparionin groups. Significant differences between groups obtained from HSD test are depicted above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it.

Bioprovince West Mediterranean Balkans Western Anatolia
Turolian hipparionin groups periafricanum gromovae cf. matthewi concudense primigenium macedonicum dietrichi proboscideum primigenium macedonicum dietrichi proboscideum
Western Mediterranean periafricanum     epLsar Asfc, epLsar, PC1                
gromovae       Asfc, epLsar, PC1   Asfc            
cf. matthewi Asfc, epLsar, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, PC1       Asfc Asfc Asfc, PC1 Asfc, PC1 Asfc, PC1   Asfc
concudense Asfc, epLsar, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, PC1       Asfc, PC1 Asfc, PC1 Asfc, PC1 Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 Asfc, PC1 PC1 Asfc, PC1
primigenium HAsfc HAsfc             HAsfc      
Balkans macedonicum Asfc, epLsar Asfc, Asfc, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, PC1 Asfc,       HAsfc      
dietrichi   Asfc, Asfc, epLsar, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, PC1 HAsfc,              
proboscideum epLsar, PC1 Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, HAsfc, PC1 Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 HAsfc, PC1 PC1         HAsfc
primigenium epLsar HAsfc Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, HAsfc, PC1 HAsfc HAsfc HAsfc         HAsfc
Western Anatolia macedonicum     Asfc, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, PC1       HAsfc HAsfc      
dietrichi     Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, HAsfc, PC1 HAsfc Asfc, HAsfc   Asfc   HAsfc    
proboscideum epLsar   Asfc, PC1 Asfc, epLsar, PC1   Asfc   Asfc, HAsfc, PC1 HAsfc   HAsfc  

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.4. Summary of post-hoc tests on parameters showing significant differences between localities. Here represented the results from pairwise comparisons between localities with hipparionins of the macedonicum group. Significant differences obtained from the HSD test are above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it.

macedonicum group Balkans Western Anatolia    
Locality NIK RZO PER DTK GLP MYSE MTLA/B
Balkans Nikiti-2 (NIK)     epLsar        
Ravin des Zouaves-5 (RZO) epLsar            
Perivolaki (PER) epLsar, PC1            
Dytiko (DTK) epLsar, PC1 Tfv          
Western Anatolia Gülpınar (GLP) HAsfc, PC1 HAsfc HAsfc     HAsfc  
Şerefköy-2 (MYSE) epLsar     Tfv HAsfc    
Samos (MTLA/B)       Tfv   HAsfc  

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.5. Summary of post-hoc tests on parameters showing significant differences between localities. Here represented the results from pairwise comparisons between localities with hipparionins of the dietrichi group. Significant differences obtained from the HSD test are above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it.

dietrichi group Balkans Western Anatolia
Locality NIK PER DTK GLP MTLA/B
Balkans Nikiti-2 (NIK)          
Perivolaki (PER) epLsar, PC1        
Dytiko (DTK)          
Western Anatolia Gülpınar (GLP)          
Samos (MTLA/B) epLsar        

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.6. Summary of post-hoc tests on parameters showing significant differences between localities. Here represented the results from pairwise comparisons between localities with hipparionins of the proboscideum group. Significant differences obtained from the HSD test are above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it.

proboscideum group Balkans Western Anatolia
Locality RZO PER HD MYSE MTLA/B
Balkans Ravin des Zouaves-5 (RZO)          
Perivolaki (PER) Tfv        
Hadjidimovo (HD)          
Western Anatolia Şerefköy-2 (MYSE)     HAsfc    
Samos (MTLA/B)   Tfv, PC1 HAsfc, PC1 Tfv  

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.7. Summary of post-hoc tests on parameters showing significant differences between localities. Here represented the results from pairwise comparisons between localities with hipparionins of the primigenium group. Significant differences obtained from the HSD test are above the grey diagonal and those from LSD are under it.

primigenium group Western Mediterranean Balkans
Locality ARQ HD
Western Mediterranean El Arquillo (ARQ) HSD test →  
Balkans Hadjidimovo (HD) HAsfc ← LSD test

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.8. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Nikiti-2 locality.

Nikiti-2 (NIK) macedonicum dietrichi
macedonicum HSD test → Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000
dietrichi Asfc: - ← LSD test
epLSar: 0.968
HAsfc: 0.480
Tfv: 0.667
PC1: 0.811

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.9. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Perivolaki locality.

Perivolaki (PER) macedonicum dietrichi proboscideum
macedonicum HSD test → Asfc: - Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000 epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 1.000 HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 1.000 Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000 PC1: 1.000
dietrichi Asfc: -

 

Asfc: -
epLSar: 0.813 epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 0.569 HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 0.997 Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 0.389 PC1: 1.000
proboscideum Asfc: - Asfc: - ← LSD test
epLSar: 0.744 epLSar: 0.669
HAsfc: 0.779 HAsfc: 0.997
Tfv: 0.184 Tfv: 0.198
PC1: 0.203 PC1: 0.408

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.10. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Hadjidimovo locality.

Hadjidimovo (HD) proboscideum primigenium
proboscideum HSD test → Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000
primigenium Asfc: - ← LSD test
epLSar: 0.970
HAsfc: 0.990
Tfv: 0.257
PC1: 0.187

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.11. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Dytiko locality. Significant p-values represented in bold.

Dytiko (DTK) macedonicum dietrichi
macedonicum HSD test → Asfc: -
epLSar: 0.998
HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 0.913
PC1: 1.000
dietrichi Asfc: - ← LSD test
epLSar: 0.144
HAsfc: 0.806
Tfv: 0.040
PC1: 0.323

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.12. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Gülpınar locality.

Gülpınar (GLP) macedonicum dietrichi
macedonicum HSD test → Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000
dietrichi Asfc: - ← LSD test
epLSar: 0.991
HAsfc: 0.448
Tfv: 0.444
PC1: 0.516

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.13. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Samos new collections.

Samos (MTLA/B) macedonicum dietrichi proboscideum
macedonicum HSD → Asfc: - Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000 epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 1.000 HAsfc: 0.971
Tfv: 1.000 Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000 PC1: 0.995
dietrichi Asfc: -   Asfc: -
epLSar: 0.663 epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 0.353 HAsfc: 1.000
Tfv: 0.850 Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 0.691 PC1: 1.000
proboscideum Asfc: - Asfc: - ← LSD
epLSar: 0.475 epLSar: 0.213
HAsfc: 0.066 HAsfc: 0.479
Tfv: 0.902 Tfv: 0.723
PC1: 0.111 PC1: 0.267

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.14. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from Şerefköy-2 locality.

Şerefköy-2 (MYSE) macedonicum proboscideum
macedonicum HSD test → Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 0.997
Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000
proboscideum Asfc: - ← LSD test
epLSar: 0.972
HAsfc: 0.124
Tfv: 0.881
PC1: 0.659

 

 

 

APPENDIX 7.15. Results of the post-hoc tests from pairwise comparisons between hipparionin groups from El Arquillo locality. Significant p-values represented in bold.

El Arquillo (ARQ) periafricanum gromovae primigenium
periafricanum HSD → Asfc: - Asfc: -
epLSar: 1.000 epLSar: 0.995
HAsfc: 1.000 HAsfc: 0.840
Tfv: 1.000 Tfv: 1.000
PC1: 1.000 PC1: 1.000
gromovae Asfc: -   Asfc: -
epLSar: 0.175 epLSar: 1.000
HAsfc: 0.645 HAsfc: 0.909
Tfv: 0.779 Tfv: 0.985
PC1: 0.743 PC1: 1.000
primigenium Asfc: - Asfc: - ← LSD
epLSar: 0.112 epLSar: 0.397
HAsfc: 0.027 HAsfc: 0.039
Tfv: 0.970 Tfv: 0.830
PC1: 0.604 PC1: 0.450

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