Home

Article Search

TABLE 1. Mammalian faunal list for bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone, SW Headon Hill. Asterisk (*) indicates presence of species in the samples analysed herein. (L) indicates species larger than 1 kg, so not micromammals. NISP = number of identified specimens; MNI = minimum number of individuals. Artiodactyls are not typically micromammals, but tiny Mouillacitherium belongs in this category and is included.

Order Family Species NISP MNI Family
NISP
Family
MNI
Didelphimorphia
(primitive marsupials)
Herpetotheriidae * Amphiperatherium species A 63 8 343 19
* Amphiperatherium species B 67 7
* Amphiperatherium species C 29 3
* Peratherium cuvieri 1 1
Rodentia “Paramyidae” * Plesiarctomys gervaisii (L) 1 1 1 1
Gliridae Gliravus daamsi 0 0 179 13
* Miniglis minor 46 4
* Bransatoglis bahloi 11 3
* Glamys priscus 77 6
Pseudosciuridae * Sciuroides ehrensteinensis 1 1 166 15
* Suevosciurus bosmae 94 8
* Treposciurus mutabilis 12 3
Treposciurus gardneri 0 0
* Tarnomys quercyi vectisensis 18 3
Theridomyidae * Thalerimys fordi 782 77 1050 79
* Isoptychus sp. 13 2
Lipotyphla Talpidae * Eotalpa anglica 36 5 36 5
Amphilemuridae * Gesneropithex latidens 51 3 51 3
Chiroptera Hipposideridae * Pseudorhinolophus sp. 2 1 2 1
Palaeochiropterygidae * Stehlinia sp. 1 1 1 1
Stem Euarchonta Nyctitheriidae * Saturninia gracilis 64 8 663 44
* Cryptotopos woodi 35 4
* Cheilonyctia lawsoni 221 20
Scraeva hatherwoodensis 0 0
* Euronyctia curranti. 92 12
Primates Adapidae * Magnadapis sp. (L) 1 1 1 1
Adapis stintoni (L) 0 0
Omomyidae * Pseudoloris parvulus 6 2 28 6
* Vectipithex smithorum 14 3
* Microchoerus erinaceus 5 1
Pantolesta Pantolestidae * Cryptopithecus major 32 3 32 3
Apatotheria Apatemyidae * Heterohyus nanus 6 2 6 2
Heterohyus sp. 0 0
Carnivora “Miacidae” * Paramiacis sp. 61 2 61 2
Artiodactyla   Anthracotheriidae Diplopus aymardi (L) 0 0 0 0
Xiphodontidae Dichodon cervinus (L) 0 0 0 0
Dichobunidae * Mouillacitherium sp. 1 1 1 1
Perissodactyla  Palaeotheriidae  Plagiolophus annectens (L) 0 0 0 0
Palaeotherium muehlbergi (L) 0 0    
Indet.  Indet.  Indet.      377  
Totals: 16 in sample 30 in sample 1843 196 2998 196
 

 

 

TABLE 2. Quantification of surface modifications on mammalian skeletal elements by family and, in the case of Chiroptera, by order.

  Theridomyidae Pseudosciuridae Gliridae Herpetotheriidae Nyctitheriidae Omomyidae Talpidae Amphilemuridae Apatemyidae Pantolestidae “Miacidae” Chiroptera Dichobunidae
Number of identified bones (NISP bones) 2711   452 86 78 4 0 0 0 0 49
(4)5
0 0
Number of identified teeth (NISP teeth) 7333 1143 893 347 585 24
(6)5
35 18 6 32 15
(5)5
3 1
Minimum number of complete bones (N bones) 2371   37 52 30 1 0 0 0 0 15 0 0
Minimum number of complete teeth (N teeth) 561
(733)3
1143 893 257 585 24
(6)5
25 18 3 32 15
(5)5
3 1
Skeletal average relative abundance4 2.81   2.9 2.6 - - - - - - - - -
Total extent of bone fragmentation % 571   49 68 62 75 - - - - 69 - -
Percentage of etched teeth 543 613 323 20 18 42
(92)5
20 18 67 22 40 33 100
Percentage of etched bones 421   47 47 28 25 100 - - - 70 - -
Puncture marks (by Paramiacis) yes no no no no no no no no no no no no
Chipping yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no
Cracking yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no
Gnaw marks (by glirids) yes no no no no no no no no no no no no
Parallel grooves (by insects?) yes no yes no yes no no no no no no no no
Transverse grooves (by nyctitheres?) yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes no
Percentage of weathered elements 18 15 10 10 5 11 0 0 0 0 5 0 0
Fine striations (by trampling?) yes no no no yes no no no no no yes no no
Rounding or polishing no no no no no no no no no no no no no

1 Includes doubtful theridomyid bones, which may include Pseudosciuridae.

2 Includes doubtfully attributed to family.

3 Cheek teeth only, as some incisors of Theridomyidae and Pseudosciuridae may be confused; figure in parentheses is with the incisors included. Gliridae are treated similarly for consistency within Rodentia.

4 Average relative abundance is mean of relative abundances of all elements except teeth, incus and malleus.

5 Figures in parentheses are MNI, recognizing that nine of the omomyid teeth belong to one individual of Vectipithex smithorum and that 11 of the teeth and 46 of the bones of Paramiacis sp. (“Miacidae”) belong to a single individual.

 

 

TABLE 3. Counts of the minimum number of complete specimens (Ni) of all the skeletal elements and the Relative Abundances for Thalerimys fordi from bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone. Column 2: number of elements in a single theridomyid skeleton (based on Schmidt-Kittler and Storch, 1985); vertebral number includes the four sacrals and the phalangeal and metapodial number excludes the manual ray I, which is greatly reduced in Theridomyidae. Column 3: number of T. fordi specimens expected, based on the MNI of 77 for the species. Column 4: total Ni (Thalerimys + ? Thalerimys + ?? Thalerimys + “possible Theridomyidae”). Column 5: % Relative Abundance (Ri) of total in relation to T. fordi expected [(column4/column3)*100]; the average skeletal Relative Abundance appears in the table as “Total” Relative Abundance and equals the mean value of the abundances of all the skeletal elements (excluding teeth).

Skeletal element N elements
T. fordi
N T. fordi
expected
Total Ni % Ri of total
T. fordi
expected
Dentary 2 154 2 1.3%
Maxilla 2 154 6 3.9%
Vertebrae 53 4081 0 0%
Ribs 24 1848 0 0%
Scapula 2 154 1 0.6%
Humerus 2 154 12 7.8%
Radius 2 154 11 7.1%
Ulna 2 154 16 10.4%
Carpals 18 1386 2 0.1%
Pelvis 2 154 0 0%
Femur 2 154 5 3.2%
Tibia 2 154 3 1.9%
Fibula 2 154 1 0.6%
Astragalus 2 154 8 5.2%
Calcaneum 2 154 3 1.9%
Other tarsals 10 770 11 1.4%
Metapodials 18 1386 24 1.7%
Phalanges 52 4004 132 3.3%
Total 199 15323 237 2.8%

 

 

TABLE 4. Counts and percentages of the total for each of the six limb bones in each breakage class for the total theridomyid and possible theridomyid material from bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone.

Total = Thalerimys + ? Thalerimys + ?? Thalerimys + possible Theridomyidae
  Humerus   Ulna   Radius   Femur   Tibia   Fibula
Breakage class N %   N %   N %   N %   N %   N %
Complete 0 0   0 0   0 0   0 0   0 0   0 0
Proximal 0 0   3 19   11 100   5 100   0 0   0 0
Distal 11 100   0 0   0 0   0 0   2 100   1 100
Shaft 0 0   13 81   0 0   0 0   0 0   0 0
Total 11 100   16 100   11 100   5 100   2 100   1 100

 

 

 

TABLE 5. Percentages of breakage types, including rounding by etching, of elongate bones for common micromammalian families in bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone. Numbers in parentheses have been calculated by dividing the percentages of each breakage category per family by the square root of the sample number in each category per family. They are used in the bars in Figures 3 and 10.

  Gliridae Herpetotheriidae Theridomyidae Nyctitheriidae
Total broken elongate bones (N) 21 49 131 23
Spiral irregular breakage (N)
% of broken modified when fresh
7
33% (12.2%)
25
51% (10.2%)
65
50% (6.2%)
6
26% (10.4%)
Perpendicular smooth breakage-dry (N)
% of broken modified when dry
13
62% (17.2%)
24
49% (10.0%)
4
3% (1.5%)
11
48% (14.6%)
Broken elongate with rounded edges (N)
% of broken with rounded edges
6
29% (11.6%)
13
27% (7.5%)
35
27% (6.9%)
4
17.4% (8.7%)

 

 

TABLE 6. Percentages of broken flat, elongate and compact bones for three most common micromammalian families in bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone. Numbers in parentheses have been calculated as in Table 5.

  Gliridae Herpetotheriidae Theridomyidae
Total flat 0 9 9
Broken flat
% broken flat
0
0% (0%)
9
100% (33.3%)
9
100% (33.3%)
Total elongate 40 66 207
Broken elongate
% broken elongate
21
53% (11.5%)
49
74% (10.6%)
131
63% (5.5%)
Total compact 5 10 55
Broken compact
% broken compact
1
20% (20%)
0
0% (0%)
14
26% (7.0%)
Total bone fragmentation degree 49% (10.4%) 68% (9.0%) 57% (4.6%)

 

 

TABLE 7. Percentage of etched teeth (including the incisors of the rodents) of Theridomyidae, Gliridae, Herpetotheriidae and Nyctitheriidae and of Theridomyidae + Herpetotheriidae (semiterrestrial) and Gliridae + Nyctitheriidae (scansorial) in bed O3 (“Os1” of Vasileiadou et al., 2007a, 2009), Osborne Member and bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone. Percentages in the last column have been calculated as in Table 5.

  Total Affected %
of total
%
sq root
Theridomyidae
O3 785 505 64% 2.8%
TB33 608 327 54% 3.0%
Gliridae
O3 296 122 39% 3.5%
TB33 105 42 40% 6.2%
Herpetotheriidae
O3 747 344 46% 2.5%
TB33 257 51 20% 2.8%
Nyctitheriidae
O3 163 36 22% 3.7%
TB33 584 102 18% 1.8%
Theridomyidae + Herpetotheriidae
O3 1532 849 55% 1.9%
TB33 865 378 44% 2.3%
Gliridae + Nyctitheriidae
O3 459 158 34% 2.7%
TB33 689 144 21% 1.8%
Total
O3 1991 1007 51% 1.6%
TB33 1554 522 34% 1.5%

 

 

TABLE 8. Percentages of fresh breakage of elongate bones and etched (rounded) bones and teeth for rodents (theridomyids, pseudosciurids, and glirids) and insectivorous mammals (herpetotheriid marsupials and nyctitheres) in bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone. N.B., pseudosciurids are only represented by teeth. Percentages in the last column have been calculated as in Table 5.

  Total Affected %
of total
%
square root
Breakage of elongate fresh bone
Rodents 247 152 62% 5.0%
Insectivores 97 72 74% 8.7%
Etching of bones
Rodents 376 135 36% 3.1%
Insectivores 164 62 38% 4.8%
Etching of teeth
Rodents 713 369 52% 2.7%
Insectivores 841 153 18% 1.5%

 

 

TABLE 9. Counts and percentages from each family represented in bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone by numerous postcranial elements, showing four weathering stages defined by Andrews (1990). Numbers in parentheses have been calculated as in Table 5.

  Theridomyidae Gliridae Herpetotheriidae Nyctitheriidae
Total N 879 105 343 662
Weathering stage 0 722 95 310 630
Weathering stage 1 140 10 30 29
Weathering stage 2 17 0 2 3
Weathering stage 3 0 0 1 0
Total weathered 157 10 33 32
% stage 0 82.1% (±3.1%) 90.5% (±9.2%) 90.4% (±5.1%) 95.2% (±3.8)
% stage 1 15.9% (±1.4%) 9.5% (±3.0%) 8.7% (±1.6%) 4.4% (±0.8)
% stage 2 2.0% (±0.5%) 0% 0.6% (±0.4%) 0.4% (±0.3%)
% stage 3 0% 0% 0.3% (±0.3%) 0%
% weathered 17.0% (±1.4%) 9.5% (±3.0%) 9.6% (±1.7%) 4.8% (±0.8%)

 

 

TABLE 10. Counts of the bones of Paramiacis sp., belonging to a single individual from bed TB33, How Ledge Limestone, SW Headon Hill. The figure in parentheses represents the number of first phalanges when the broken proximal and distal ends are united with the rest of the bone in each case.

Skeletal element Right Left Complete Distal Proximal Shaft %
Fragmentation
Petrosal 1 1 2       0
Caudal vertebra 2 1       50
Metacarpal II 1 0 0 0 1 0 100
Astragalus 1 0 0       100
Calcaneum 0 1 0       100
Entocuneiform 0 1 1       0
Ectocuneiform 0 1 1       0
Metatarsal II 0 1 0 0 1 0 100
Metatarsal IV 0 1 0 0 1 0 100
Unidentified M/P 3 0 3 0 0 100
Phalanx 1 16 (12) 1 9 4 2 94
Phalanx 2 10 1 7 2 0 90
Ungual 7 7       0
Total bones 47 14 19 9 2 64

logo smallPalaeontologia Electronica
Webmaster
1998–2022
25 years of electronic palaeontology

PE is archived by Internet Archive.