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Dataset of analyzed lion-like felid crania used for the analyses mentioned in the paper.

Site and Institutional
Number of the Skull
Standard
Nomen
Original
Nomen
Sex Ontogenetic
Age
Greatest
Cranial Length
(L)
Palatal
Length
(LP)
Ichetucknee (UF 9076) atrox atrox male adult 404.0 180.0
Natural Trap Cave (KUVP 31417) atrox atrox female adult 315.5 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 20049) atrox atrox male adult 447.5 158.5
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-3) atrox atrox male adult 458.0 134.4
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-4) atrox atrox female adult 325.8 126.1
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-6) atrox atrox female adult 310.3 121.7
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-7) atrox atrox female adult 373.5 140.8
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-8) atrox atrox male adult 391.9 136.5
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-9) atrox atrox male adult 429.5 148.0
Mauer fossilis fossilis male adult 442.0 -
Azé I-3 (AZE.K.13.29) fossilis fossilis male prime adult 417.4 181.0
Romain-la-Roche (FEL.03, specimen 3) intermedia spelaea female adult 364.8 161.5
Vence intermedia spelaea male adult 354.0 -
Edingen (SMNS no. 6617.1.9.72.2) intermedia spelaea male adult 440.0 -
Niedźwiedzia (K-111) intermedia primitive spelaea male adult 414.0 -
San (Coll. Nr NKM-00664) intermedia primitive spelaea male adult 451.0 200.0
Petralona (PEC 90) intermedia fossilis-spelaea male adult 416.0 178.5
Bottrop (EHQB No. MBOT 6349/19a-b) spelaea spelaea male adult 380.0 -
Huttenheim (SMNS no. 6816.5.6.73.1) spelaea spelaea male adult 375.0 -
Perickhöhlen (BMNHL No. 28553) spelaea spelaea female adult 301.0 -
Siegsdorf spelaea spelaea male prime adult 384.0 179.0
Zoolithenhöhle (holotype; MB no. Ma.50948) spelaea spelaea male adult 402.0 -
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.48155.1) spelaea spelaea male adult 401.0 -
Zoolithenhöhle (UM-O no. BT5421) spelaea spelaea male adult 395.0 -
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.50947) spelaea spelaea female adult 355.0 -
Zandobbio (MCSNB 5127) spelaea spelaea female adult 324.2 -
Brno (Anthropos specimen) spelaea spelaea female adult - -
Sloup (Vienna specimen; NHMV No. 1885/0014/4302) spelaea spelaea male adult 393.0 -
Sloup (Anthropos specimen) spelaea spelaea male prime adult 375.0 -
Sloup (OK 130570) spelaea spelaea male adult 386.5 170.5
Srbsko - Chlum Komín Cave (NM R-4406) spelaea spelaea female prime adult 305.0 -
Výpustek 1 (Anthropos specimen) spelaea spelaea male prime adult 412.0 -
Výpustek 3 (Anthropos specimen) spelaea spelaea male adult - -
Igrita spelaea spelaea female adult 333.0 -
Ursilor - level III, chamber 2, skeleton 3 (SIER no. PU/0001) spelaea spelaea female adult 302.0 -
Binagady (Caucasus) (No. 25) spelaea spelaea female adult 310.0 128.0
Desna (No. A-34) spelaea spelaea male adult 375.0 -
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 1417) spelaea spelaea male adult 355.0 153.0
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 9048) spelaea spelaea male adult 380.0 166.0
Kondakovka (K-1) spelaea vereshchagini male prime adult 345.1 -
Mokhokho (ZIN 29398) spelaea vereshchagini female adult 303.0 147.0
Uzhur (Central Siberia) (KKM 11938) spelaea spelaea male senile adult 350.0 170.0
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 14359) spelaea spelaea male prime adult 437.0 186.2
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 04696) spelaea spelaea female adult 349.0 -
western India (SNM-PM 1701) leo persica leo male adult 378.2 157.8
Africa (SNM-PM C1521) leo leo female adult 302.5 138.7
Africa (Anthropos specimen) leo leo female prime adult 302.1 141.5
Senegal (Nr 986) leo leo male prime adult 334.3 147.4
Zambezi - Zambia (NMW 1241) leo leo male adult 344.0 147.6
Chad (NMW 4234/B/4694) leo leo male prime adult 366.7 167.0
Tanzania (NMW 5489/B/5124) leo leo male prime adult 348.6 143.4
Cameroon (NMW 32819) leo leo female adult 300.4 136.3
             
Site and Institutional
Number of the Skull
Medial Length of Nasals (LMN) Lateral Length of Nasals (LLN) Greatest Nasal Width (BN) Snout Width
(BS)
Width across Zygomatic Arches (BZ) Greatest Neurocranial Width (BNC)
Ichetucknee (UF 9076) 94.0 - 61.3 - 251.0 -
Natural Trap Cave (KUVP 31417) 77.8 82.1 51.9 95.6 212.0 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 20049) 104.5 - 69.9 127.3 276.3 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-3) - - 73.0 141.4 294.0 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-4) 82.7 - 53.2 98.3 225.2 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-6) 79.2 - 51.4 98.0 205.7 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-7) 90.9 - 63.2 111.8 235.3 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-8) 96.0 - 63.9 116.9 245.0 -
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-9) 101.6 - 67.0 122.8 296.5 -
Mauer - - - 113.0 300.0 -
Azé I-3 (AZE.K.13.29) 104.6 120.5 62.2 112.3 283.4 111.3
Romain-la-Roche (FEL.03, specimen 3) - - 44.0 94.0 225.6 92.0
Vence 80.8 92.4 61.6 100.0 241.0 -
Edingen (SMNS no. 6617.1.9.72.2) 127.3 131.8 77.3 136.4 281.8 -
Niedźwiedzia (K-111) - - 63.0 90.0 272.0 -
San (Coll. Nr NKM-00664) - - 55.2 138.0 300.0 96.5
Petralona (PEC 90) 60.0 62.0 46.0 115.2 - 98.7
Bottrop (EHQB No. MBOT 6349/19a-b) 96.9 119.2 67.1 111.8 - -
Huttenheim (SMNS no. 6816.5.6.73.1) 95.9 106.1 69.4 110.2 244.9 -
Perickhöhlen (BMNHL No. 28553) - - 53.1 106.1 - -
Siegsdorf 100.0 113.3 58.0 106.0 250.5 -
Zoolithenhöhle (holotype; MB no. Ma.50948) - - - 131.4 285.7 -
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.48155.1) 109.1 118.2 100.0 136.4 - -
Zoolithenhöhle (UM-O no. BT5421) 95.5 109.1 81.8 127.2 - -
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.50947) 81.8 100.0 72.7 109.1 263.6 -
Zandobbio (MCSNB 5127) 81.8 104.6 65.9 - 225.1 93.9
Brno (Anthropos specimen) - - - - - 96.5
Sloup (Vienna specimen; NHMV No. 1885/0014/4302) 100.0 109.1 86.4 113.6 251.0 -
Sloup (Anthropos specimen) 81.8 100.0 63.6 100.0 232.0 -
Sloup (OK 130570) - - 65.4 112.0 - 111.6
Srbsko - Chlum Komín Cave (NM R-4406) - - 52.8 91.0 199.7 94.5
Výpustek 1 (Anthropos specimen) - - 60.6 118.2 - 129.5
Výpustek 3 (Anthropos specimen) 82.0 97.0 54.0 101.1 235.4 106.4
Igrita 77.7 92.9 55.1 101.5 232.0 -
Ursilor - level III, chamber 2, skeleton 3 (SIER no. PU/0001) - 79.1 50.3 86.3 215.7 -
Binagady (Caucasus) (No. 25) - 89.0 52.0 80.0 185.0 -
Desna (No. A-34) - 107.0 - 111.0 240.0 -
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 1417) - 94.0 62.0 101.0 244.0 -
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 9048) - 100.0 61.0 110.0 244.0 -
Kondakovka (K-1) - 92.3 69.2 103.0 249.0 -
Mokhokho (ZIN 29398) 68.2 72.9 52.9 87.0 198.1 -
Uzhur (Central Siberia) (KKM 11938) 86.5 93.3 65.5 109.5 234.0 -
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 14359) 108.3 119.6 66.5 117.8 - 118.0
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 04696) 86.7 107.0 58.6 99.8 - 100.6
western India (SNM-PM 1701) 99.6 114.3 63.0 114.2 272.0 118.0
Africa (SNM-PM C1521) 66.0 84.0 49.5 88.8 206.0 97.5
Africa (Anthropos specimen) 73.6 86.8 57.6 87.1 198.2 89.0
Senegal (Nr 986) 80.8 100.2 56.4 86.4 223.0 100.0
Zambezi - Zambia (NMW 1241) 85.0 103.2 49.1 95.6 220.2 106.4
Chad (NMW 4234/B/4694) 85.3 103.8 55.2 98.0 254.0 105.5
Tanzania (NMW 5489/B/5124) 85.0 104.8 51.1 94.6 230.0 104.5
Cameroon (NMW 32819) 81.7 98.8 45.3 85.2 201.0 97.6
             
Site and Institutional
Number of the Skull
Mastoid
Width (BM)
Interorbital
Width (IOB)
Postorbital Width/
Contriction (POC)
Greatest Diameter of the
Auditory Bullae
(LAB)
Profile Depth Profile Depth of Assumed
Straight Cranial Profile
Ichetucknee (UF 9076) 146.0 86.5 73.0 - 139.4  
Natural Trap Cave (KUVP 31417) 133.6 86.4 64.8 - 110.7  
Rancho la Brea (No. 20049) 158.2 93.5 84.8 30-Aug 146.9  
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-3) 173.6 - - 29-Jun 144.8  
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-4) 132.7 75.3 72.0 23.0 117.2  
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-6) 126.7 68.8 70.7 22.0 102.1  
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-7) 138.2 83.3 78.8 22-Mar 116.5  
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-8) 144.8 83.6 75.5 28.0 124.6  
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-9) - 98.3 85.0 29.2 142.6  
Mauer 166.6 88.2 69.0 - 139.3 147.3
Azé I-3 (AZE.K.13.29) 162.5 93.0 95.3 52.5 130.4 141.6
Romain-la-Roche (FEL.03, specimen 3) 137.9 79.4 71.0 41.8 145.4 150.6
Vence 115.4 92.4 77.0 - 112.8 120.3
Edingen (SMNS no. 6617.1.9.72.2) 172.7 109.1 81.8 - 156.8 163.2
Niedźwiedzia (K-111) 161.2 84.0 85.1 - 146.1 155.8
San (Coll. Nr NKM-00664) 176.0 108.0 93.8 55.8 141.9 148.1
Petralona (PEC 90) - 89.4 70.9 - 142.1 147.2
Bottrop (EHQB No. MBOT 6349/19a-b) 134.1 96.9 - - 131.5  
Huttenheim (SMNS no. 6816.5.6.73.1) - 89.8 85.7 - 120.8  
Perickhöhlen (BMNHL No. 28553) 138.8 81.6 77.6 - 104.4  
Siegsdorf 152.0 76.8 64.5 46.0 125.8  
Zoolithenhöhle (holotype; MB no. Ma.50948) 166.7 108.6 94.3 - 137.5 142.8
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.48155.1) 177.3 127.3 100.0 - 145.8  
Zoolithenhöhle (UM-O no. BT5421) 163.6 104.6 90.9 - 135.8  
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.50947) 154.6 100.0 90.9 - 119.7  
Zandobbio (MCSNB 5127) 130.1 71.5 62.6 46.7 109.9  
Brno (Anthropos specimen) 122.7 60.5 61.3 33.7 -  
Sloup (Vienna specimen; NHMV No. 1885/0014/4302) - 76.0 90.9 - 112.3  
Sloup (Anthropos specimen) - 77.0 81.8 - 117.3 128.7
Sloup (OK 130570) 162.4 - 65.2 - 140.1  
Srbsko - Chlum Komín Cave (NM R-4406) 130.6 92.5 65.1 44.2 104.2  
Výpustek 1 (Anthropos specimen) 160.4 93.0 78.2 - -  
Výpustek 3 (Anthropos specimen) 152.2 71.2 63.8 43.7 -  
Igrita 134.0 70.4 56.0 - 109.2  
Ursilor - level III, chamber 2, skeleton 3 (SIER no. PU/0001) 136.6 79.1 64.7 - 107.4  
Binagady (Caucasus) (No. 25) - 58.0 56.0 47.0 87.8  
Desna (No. A-34) 152.0 78.0 71.0 - 119.3  
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 1417) - 73.0 66.0 48.0 120.7  
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 9048) - 77.0 72.0 46.0 116.1  
Kondakovka (K-1) 153.0 72.0 62.0 - 112.8 121.5
Mokhokho (ZIN 29398) 124.2 58.2 59.8 - 96.9  
Uzhur (Central Siberia) (KKM 11938) 142.0 83.0 68.0 - -  
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 14359) 163.0 86.6 75.4 51.8 131.3  
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 04696) 130.0 74.8 67.0 - 118.1  
western India (SNM-PM 1701) 143.8 84.4 70.0 46.3 126.8 131.1
Africa (SNM-PM C1521) 115.4 56.5 59.7 43.8 109.2 111.7
Africa (Anthropos specimen) 120.4 61.4 62.0 43.6 110.5  
Senegal (Nr 986) 128.0 61.8 64.8 47.5 117.4  
Zambezi - Zambia (NMW 1241) 132.0 67.4 58.6 49.7 105.5  
Chad (NMW 4234/B/4694) 137.8 69.7 60.2 54.6 108.6  
Tanzania (NMW 5489/B/5124) 130.0 68.6 64.5 47.6 109.7  
Cameroon (NMW 32819) 119.0 63.4 62.0 46.4 109.9  

 

Site and Institutional Number
of the Skull
Cranial Profile
Angle (A)
Angle B Angle C Cranial Profile
Ichetucknee (UF 9076) 178 142 97 0
Natural Trap Cave (KUVP 31417) 178 135 111 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 20049) 177 146 108 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-3) 180 143 104 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-4) 174 143 103.5 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-6) 177 145.5 103 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-7) 177 143 108 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-8) 174 141 106 0
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-9) 180 139 106.5 0
Mauer 170 140 88 2
Azé I-3 (AZE.K.13.29) 161 142 98 2
Romain-la-Roche (FEL.03, specimen 3) 168 - 95 2
Vence 162 140 107 2
Edingen (SMNS no. 6617.1.9.72.2) 174 136 97 1
Niedźwiedzia (K-111) 160 126 104 2
San (Coll. Nr NKM-00664) 164 130 125 2
Petralona (PEC 90) 174 138 95 1
Bottrop (EHQB No. MBOT 6349/19a-b) 180 140 107 0
Huttenheim (SMNS no. 6816.5.6.73.1) 177 141 107 0
Perickhöhlen (BMNHL No. 28553) 174 136 96 0
Siegsdorf 179 140 102 0
Zoolithenhöhle (holotype; MB no. Ma.50948) 172 - 107 1
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.48155.1) 175 140 97 0
Zoolithenhöhle (UM-O no. BT5421) 174 144 102 0
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.50947) 170 147 99 0
Zandobbio (MCSNB 5127) 180 149 98 0
Brno (Anthropos specimen) 173 139 100 0
Sloup (Vienna specimen; NHMV No. 1885/0014/4302) 177 145 100 0
Sloup (Anthropos specimen) 165 140 111 2
Sloup (OK 130570) 175 145 100 0
Srbsko - Chlum Komín Cave (NM R-4406) 175 134 95 0
Výpustek 1 (Anthropos specimen) 175 142 110 0
Výpustek 3 (Anthropos specimen) 173 149 98 0
Igrita 178 150 103 0
Ursilor - level III, chamber 2, skeleton 3 (SIER no. PU/0001) >180 139 111 0
Binagady (Caucasus) (No. 25) 178 145 114 0
Desna (No. A-34) 170-180 - 109 0
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 1417) 176 149 109 0
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 9048) 173 - 106 0
Kondakovka (K-1) 160 - 100 2
Mokhokho (ZIN 29398) 178 144 103 0
Uzhur (Central Siberia) (KKM 11938) 171 139 106 0
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 14359) 176 145 104 0
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 04696) 178 131 121 0
western India (SNM-PM 1701) 170 149.5 96 1
Africa (SNM-PM C1521) 170 147 96 1
Africa (Anthropos specimen) 176 150 101 0
Senegal (Nr 986) 189 149 106 0
Zambezi - Zambia (NMW 1241) 175 144 103 0
Chad (NMW 4234/B/4694) 174 149 105 0
Tanzania (NMW 5489/B/5124) 174 151 105 0
Cameroon (NMW 32819) 187 140 100 0

 

Site and Institutional
Number of the Skull
Standard Age
(Age)
Altitude
(m a.s.l.)
Source
Ichetucknee (UF 9076) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian) 5 Kurtén, 1965
Natural Trap Cave (KUVP 31417) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 24 000 BP) 1,700 Martin and Gilbert, 1978
Rancho la Brea (No. 20049) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-3) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-4) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-6) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-7) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-8) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Rancho la Brea (No. 2900-9) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Wisconsinian, 30 000 - 11 000 BP) 50 Merriam and Stock, 1932
Mauer Cromerian (MIS 13 or MIS 14-15) 145 Wurm, 1912; Marciszak et al., 2019
Azé I-3 (AZE.K.13.29) Holsteinian (MIS 11, previously Saalian, today rather Holsteinian) 275 Argant, 1988; Argant and Brugal, 2017
Romain-la-Roche (FEL.03, specimen 3) Saalian (MIS 6, 160 k.y.a.) 420 Argant, 2010; Argant and Brugal, 2017
Vence Saalian (late Middle / Late Pleistocene?) 300 Boule, 1906
Edingen (SMNS no. 6617.1.9.72.2) Eemian (Late Pleistocene, ? between MIS 6 and MIS 5) 100 Diedrich and Rathgeber, 2012
Niedźwiedzia (K-111) Eemian (Late Pleistocene, Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial) 687 Wiszniowska, 1978; Barycka, 2008
San (Coll. Nr NKM-00664) Eemian (Late Pleistocen, ? between MIS 6 and MIS 5) 750 Marciszak et al., 2014
Petralona (PEC 90) Saalian (late Middle Pleistocene?) 254 Baryshnikov and Tsoukala, 2010
Bottrop (EHQB No. MBOT 6349/19a-b) Last Glacial (35 000 - 42 000 BP) 35 Diedrich, 2011b
Huttenheim (SMNS no. 6816.5.6.73.1) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene) 100 Diedrich and Rathgeber, 2012
Perickhöhlen (BMNHL No. 28553) Last Glacial (75 - 35 ka BP) 250 Diedrich, 2009
Siegsdorf Last Glacial (47 678 ± 1689 calBP, 46 308 ± 1614 calBP) 615 Gross, 1992; Schouwenburg et al., 2009
Zoolithenhöhle (holotype; MB no. Ma.50948) Last Glacial (> 35 000 BP, 28 905 ± 755 BP) 455-470 Diedrich, 2008
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.48155.1) Last Glacial (> 35 000 BP, 28 905 ± 755 BP) 455-470 Diedrich, 2011c
Zoolithenhöhle (UM-O no. BT5421) Last Glacial (> 35 000 BP, 28 905 ± 755 BP) 455-470 Diedrich, 2011c
Zoolithenhöhle (MB no. Ma.50947) Last Glacial (> 35 000 BP, 28 905 ± 755 BP) 455-470 Diedrich, 2011c
Zandobbio (MCSNB 5127) Eemian 350-470 Bona, 2006
Brno (Anthropos specimen) Last Glacial - personal observation
Sloup (Vienna specimen; NHMV No. 1885/0014/4302) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene) 495 Diedrich, 2011a
Sloup (Anthropos specimen) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene) 495 Diedrich 2011a; personal observation
Sloup (OK 130570) Last Glacial 464 personal observation
Srbsko - Chlum Komín Cave (NM R-4406) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene) 240 Diedrich 2011a; personal observation
Výpustek 1 (Anthropos specimen) Last Glacial 384 personal observation
Výpustek 3 (Anthropos specimen) Last Glacial 384 personal observation
Igrita Last Glacial 328 Terzea, 1965
Ursilor - level III, chamber 2, skeleton 3 (SIER no. PU/0001) Last Glacial 482 Diedrich, 2012
Binagady (Caucasus) (No. 25) Middle-Late Pleistocene (Q2-Q3) - Vereshchagin, 1971
Desna (No. A-34) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Q3) - Vereshchagin, 1971
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 1417) Middle-Late Pleistocene (Q2-Q3) 100-200 Vereshchagin, 1971
Isa River (South Ural) (No. 9048) Middle-Late Pleistocene (Q2-Q3) 100-200 Vereshchagin, 1971
Kondakovka (K-1) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene) 170 Sotnikova and Nikolskiy, 2006
Mokhokho (ZIN 29398) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene, Q3) 100 Baryshnikov and Boeskorov, 2001
Uzhur (Central Siberia) (KKM 11938) Last Glacial (Late Pleistocene) 400-450 Ovodov and Zaika, 2008
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 14359) Last Glacial (Last Glacial, 44 350 ± 730 yrs BC) 1,133 personal observation
Medvedia Cave in Western Tatras (P 04696) Last Glacial (Last Glacial, > 46 000 - 47 600 BP) 1,133 personal observation
western India (SNM-PM 1701) Recent - personal observation
Africa (SNM-PM C1521) Recent - personal observation
Africa (Anthropos specimen) Recent - personal observation
Senegal (Nr 986) Recent - personal observation
Zambezi - Zambia (NMW 1241) Recent - personal observation
Chad (NMW 4234/B/4694) Recent - personal observation
Tanzania (NMW 5489/B/5124) Recent - personal observation
Cameroon (NMW 32819) Recent - personal observation

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