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APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1. LIST OF LOCALITIES

Information is in the following order: full name of a locality (bolded), abbreviation in parentheses (bolded; abbreviation used in text and for all Figs and Tabs), age attribution and name of a regional stratotype (= formation), collector and collecting year, geographic position. References see on the bottom.

North Kazakhstan

1. Petropavlovsk 1A (PPL/1A): late Miocene, MN 10, Ishim Formation, ish (stratotype); material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 1964, 1976, 1980, 1982, 1987; North Kazakhstan Region, Kazakhstan (ca. N54°54' E69°07').

2. Pavlodar 1A (PVL/1A): late Miocene, MN 12, Pavlodar Formation, pv (stratotype); material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; Pavlodarskaya Oblast', Kazakhstan (ca. N52°16' E77°01'). Synonym of the 'Gusinyi Perelet' locality ('Goose flight').

3. Pavlodar 2, Quarry (PVL/2): late Miocene, MN 13, Rytov Formation, rt ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; ibid.

4. Selety 1A (SLT/1A): late Miocene, MN 13, Kedey Formation, kd ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; Akmolinskaya Oblast', Kazakhstan (ca. N52°06' E72°21').

5. Borki 1A (BRK/1A): late Miocene, MN 13, Novaya Stanitsa Formation, nst ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; a material probably redeposited from Ishim Formation; North Kazakhstan Region, Kazakhstan (ca. N54°56' E69°07').

6. Borki 1B (BRK/1B): late Miocene, MN 13, Rytov Formation, rt ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; ibid.

7. Borki 1C (BRK/1C): early Pliocene, MN 14, Peshnev Formation, psh ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 1985; ibid.

8. Krasnokutsk (KRN): age undetermined; sediments redeposited; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; a material redeposited in Late Pleistocene layers; Pavlodarskaya Oblast', Kazakhstan (ca. N53°00′ E75°58′).

9. Biteke (BTK): age undetermined (~ early Pliocene, Kuskol Formation); sediments redeposited; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; a material redeposited in Biteke Formation; Kostanaiskaya Oblast', Kazakhstan (ca. N53°12' E66°58').

South-West Siberia

10. Novaya Stanitsa 1A (NST/1A): late Miocene, MN 13, Novaya Stanitsa Formation, nst (stratotype); basal level; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 80s, 2000, 2001; Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N54°50' E73°24').

11. Novaya Stanitsa 1B (NST/1B): late Miocene, MN 13, Novaya Stanitsa Formation, nst ; gravel with Unio; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; ibid.

12. Lezhanka 1A (LZN/1A): late Miocene, MN 14, Peshnev Formation, psh ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N55°27′ E73°26′); the left slope of Faddeevsky Log (ravine).

13. Lezhanka 2B (LZN/2B): late Miocene, MN 13, Rytov Formation, rt ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; ibid.; the mouth of Faddeevsky Log (ravine).

14. Cherlak 1A (CHR/1A): late Miocene, MN 13, Rytov Formation, rt ; basal level; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 80th, 2008; Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N54°09′ E74°48′).

15. Isakovka 1A (ISK/1A): early Pliocene, MN 14, Isakov Formation (basal level), is ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N55°44' E74°24').

16. Isakovka 2A (ISK/2A): early Pliocene, MN 14, Isakov Formation (basal level), is ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; ibid.
Note: syn. 'Iskakova' locality by Vasilyan et al. (2017).

17. Peshnevo 1A (PSH/1A): early Pliocene, MN 14, Peshnev Formation, psh ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 1981, 1982, 1989; Tumenskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N55°33' E69°24').

18. Peshnevo 1B (PSH/1B): early Pliocene, MN 14, Peshnev Formation, psh ; upper fossiliferous level; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 1982, 1989; ibid. Synonym of the 'Peshniovo' locality by Vasilyan et al. (2017).

19. Andreevka 1A (ANR/1A): early Pliocene, MN 14, Peshnev Formation, psh ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 1992; Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N55°02' E73°36'); 'ravine with flora'.

20. Andreevka 2A (ANR/2A) : early Pliocene, MN 14, Peshnev Formation, psh ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N55°02' E73°36').

21. Nizhneil'inka (NIL): Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N55°22' E73°14'); early Pliocene, MN 14, Krutogor Formation, krt ; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin; basal level of Krutogor Formation; a material probably redeposited from Isakov Formation.

22. Kartashovo (KRT): Omskaya Oblast', Russia (ca. N56°06' E74°44'); age undetermined; sediments redeposited; material collected by Vladimir S. Zazhigin, 1965.

APPENDIX 2. LIST OF ANALYZED FOSSIL SPECIMENS

Information is in the following order: abbreviation of the locality (bolded; detail see in Appendix 1), number of specimens in parenthesis, number of the collection catalogue of the Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (bolded), short description of specimen.

1. Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov. (n = 16): PPL/1A (n = 9): GIN 952/1153 (holotype)–right dentary fragment with p4-m1, the anterior alveolus of m2; Paratypes (n = 8): GIN 952/1152–left fragment of mandibular ramus with whole coronoid and condylar processes; /1154–isolated left lower second molar; /1155–isolated left first upper molar; /1157–damaged right first lower molar; /1158–isolated right first lower molar; /1159–isolated damaged crown part of the left first lower incisor; /1160–isolated right first upper incisor with damaged root; /1161–isolated left first upper incisor; Other material (n = 4): GIN 952/1157–damaged right first lower molar; /1400–damaged left P4; /1401–damaged left P4; /1402–damaged left P4.

BRK/1A (n = 3): GIN 1115/1148–worn left I1, crown part; /1149–right i1; /1150–left i1.

2. Paranourosorex seletiensis Storch and Zazhigin, 1996 (n = 2): SLT/1A, type locality (n = 2): GIN 951/1000 (1038) (holotype)–left dentary fragment with m1-m2, alveoli of m3 and slightly damaged mandibular ramus without angular process; Paratypes : (n = 1): GIN 951/1001(1039)–isolated left P4 without end of the postparacrista.

3. Paranourosorex intermedius sp. nov.(n = 98): NST/1A, type locality (n = 39): GIN 948/1051 (holotype)–right dentary fragment with moderately worn p4 and heavily worn m1-m3; Paratypes : (n = 12): GIN 948/1052–left dentary fragment with i1, m1 and alveoli of a1-p4 (i1 heavily and m1 moderately worn); /1056–isolated right first lower molar (slightly worn); /1063–isolated left m2 (slightly worn); /1064–isolated right m3 (slightly worn); /1065–isolated left fourth upper premolar (slightly worn); /1069–isolated right first upper molar (metacone damaged; moderately worn); /1070–isolated right first upper molar (paracone and metacone damaged; moderately worn); /1073–isolated left first upper incisive (slightly worn); /1075–isolated right first lower incisive (tip of root is broken off; moderately worn); /1078–isolated left fourth lower premolar (without roots; unworn); /1081–isolated left first lower antemolar (slightly damaged and worn); /1089–isolated left first upper antemolar (slightly worn). Other material (n = 26): GIN 948/1053–right mandibular ramus fragment with damaged coronoid and angular processes; /1054–isolated left m1 (heavily worn); /1055–isolated left m1; /1057–isolated right m1; /1058–isolated right m1; /1059–isolated left m1 (damaged); /1060–isolated left m1 (damaged); /1061–isolated right m2 (damaged); /1062–isolated left m2 (damaged); /1066–isolated left P4 (slightly worn); /1067–isolated right M1 (heavily worn); /1072–damaged right M2; /1076–crown part of the left i1; /1077–damaged right i1 without the crown tip; /1079–isolated left p4 without roots; /1080–isolated left p4 without roots; /1082–isolated left a1 without roots (damaged); /1083–isolated left a1 without roots (damaged); /1084–isolated right a1 without roots (damaged); /1086–isolated right A3; /1087–isolated right A1 (damaged); /1088–isolated right A1 without roots; /1090–isolated left A1; /1091–isolated right A1 without roots; /1093–isolated right A2; /1095–isolated right A2.

NST/1B (n = 1): GIN 948/1097–isolated right P4.

BRK/1A (n = 26): GIN 1115/1121–left dentary fragment with talonid m1, m2, alveoli of m3 and damaged mandibular ramus (coronoid process is broken, lower facet of condylar process is retained); /1122–left edentulous dentary fragment with alveoli of m2-m3, whole coronoid process and slightly rounded condylar process (upper facet damaged); /1123–left mandibular ramus fragment with whole coronoid and slightly damaged condylar process; /1124–right dentary fragment with p4-m1 (slightly worn); /1125–left dentary fragment with p4-m1 (buccal half of p4 retained); /1126–isolated left m1; /1127–right damaged m1 on a small dentary fragment; /1128–isolated right m1; /1129–left damaged m1; /1130–left damaged m1 on the small dentary fragment; /1131–left damaged m1; /1132–left damaged m1; /1133–isolated left m2; /1134–isolated left m2 (heavily worn); /1135–right damaged m2; /1136–isolated right M1 without parastyle; /1137–isolated left M1 without para- and metastyles; /1138–isolated right M1; /1139–isolated left M1; /1140–isolated right M2 without parastyle; /1141–isolated right M2 without para- and metastyles; /1142–isolated left A1 with damager crown; /1143–isolated left A1; /1144–isolated right A1 with damager crown; /1147–isolated left a1 without roots; /1151–crown of the left i1.

BRK/1B (n = 18): GIN 1115/1186–right dentary fragment with m1 and alveoli of a1, p4, m2, m3; /1187–isolated right m1 (damaged); /1188–isolated right m1 (damaged); /1189–isolated right m1 (damaged); /1190–isolated left m1; /1191–isolated right m2; /1192–isolated right m2 (damaged); /1193–isolated left m2 (damaged); /1194–isolated left m2 (heavily worn); /1195–isolated right m2 (damaged); / 1196–crown of left I1; /1198–isolated left M1; /1199–damaged left P4; /1200–damaged left M1; /120 1–damaged right M1; /1202–damaged left M2; /1203–isolated right i1; /1204–isolated right i1.

LZN/2B (n = 8): GIN 1130/1098–isolated right m1; /1099–isolated right m2; /1100–isolated right m2; /1101–isolated right m3; /1102–isolated left p4 without roots; /1103–isolated left a1; /1104–isolated right P4; /1105–damaged left M2.

PVL/2 (n = 1): GIN 1108/1106–left dentary fragment with m1 and alveoli of a1, p4, m2.

ISK/1A (n = 1): GIN 1113/1209–isolated left m2.

ISK/2A (n = 3): GIN 1113/1205–isolated left m1; /1206–damaged right A1; /1207–isolated left A2 without root/

KRT (n = 1): GIN 949/1118–right small fragment of maxilla with P4 and alveoli of A2, A3.

4. Paranourosorex gigas Rzebik-Kowalska, 1975 (n = 66): CHR/1A (n = 20): GIN 1110/1162–right dentary fragment with m1-m2 and alveoli of p4 and m3; /1163–left dentary fragment with p4-m2; /1164–right dentary fragment with i1, p4-m2; /1165–left dentary small fragment with m1 and anterior alveolus of m2; /1166–right dentary fragment with m1-m2, alveoli of m3, whole coronoid and condylar processes; /1167–left edentulous fragment with alveoli of m2, m3, damaged coronoid and condylar processes; /1168–left edentulous dentary fragment with alveoli of m1-m3, damaged coronoid and condylar processes and retained angular process; /1170–isolated left A1 (one-rooted) ; /1171–isolated left A2 (one-rooted); /1172–isolated right M1; /1173–isolated right M1; /1174–isolated right M1; /1176–damaged left M1; /1177–isolated left M2; /1178–damaged left M2; /1180–isolated left m1; /1181–isolated heavily worn left m2; /1182–isolated left m2; /1183–slightly damaged right m2; /1184–isolated left a1.

ISK/1A (n = 1): GIN 1113/1208–isolated left m1.

NIL (n = 2): GIN 1114/1116–isplated partly damaged left m1; /1117–damaged left i1.

PSH/1B (n = 33): GIN 1118/1005–isolated right M1; /1006–left dentary fragment with i1, p4, m1, alveoli of a1, m2-m3 and retained condylar process; /1008–isolated right a1; /1009–right dentary fragment with i1 and p4 and alveoli of a1, m1; /1010–right dentary fragment with m1-m3; /1011–left dentary fragment with i1, p4-m1 and alveoli of a1, m2-m3; /1012–right fragment of mandibular ramus with whole condylar process; /1013–isolated left m1; /1014–isolated right m1; /1015–isolated left m1; /1016–isolated right m1; /1017–isolated right m2; /1018–isolated left m2 (moderately worn); /1019–isolated left m2; /1020–isolated right m2; /1021–isolated right i1; /1022–left premaxilla-maxilla fragment with M1 and alveoli of A1-A3, P4; /1023–right premaxilla-maxilla fragment with P4-M1 and alveoli of A1-A3; / 1024–left maxilla fragment with P4-M1 and alveolus of A3; /1028–isolated left P4 (unworn); /1029–isolated left P4; /1030–isolated right P4 (unworn); /1032–isolated left M2; / 1033–right maxilla small fragment with M1; /1034–isolated left M1; /1036–isolated left A1; /1037–isolated left A1; /1038–isolated left A1 without roots; /1039–isolated right A1; /1040–damaged right I1; /1042–damaged left I1; /1043–damaged right I1; /1044–isolated right I1; /1045–damaged left a1.

PSH/1A (n = 1): GIN 1118/1049–isolated right A1.

ANR/1A (n = 2): GIN 1112/1107–damaged right I1; /1108–isolated left i1.

ANR/2A (n = 1): GIN 1112/1109–right dentary fragment with m1 and alveoli of m2, m3.

LZN/1A (n = 3): GIN 1129/1111–damaged left m1; /1112–damaged right p4; /1113–isolated right A1 (one-rooted).

BRK/1C (n = 1): GIN 1115/1110–right dentary fragment with m2 and alveoli of m3.

KRN (n = 2): GIN 948/1119–heavily worn right m1; /1120–right edentulous dentary fragment with alveoli of m1-m3 and retained condylar process.

5. Crusafontina sp. 1 (n = 1): PVL/1A : GIN 640/1004 (3018)–isolated first upper left molar.

6. Crusafontina sp. 2 (n = 1): SLT/1A : GIN 951/1003 (1040)–isolated left P4.

APPENDIX 3. LIST OF DIMENSIONS

APPENDIX FIGURE 3.1. Diagrammatic images of teeth and bones of Neogene Paranourosorex gigas (B, F1, H 1, H2, J, K2, L2, M2), Paranourosorex intermedius sp. nov. (A1, D1, E, G, L1, M1, M3), Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov. (A2, H3) and Recent Anourosorex squamipes (D2, F2, K1): (A) First upper incisors in lateral view from NST/1A (A 1 - GIN 948/1073) and PPL/1A (A 2 - GIN 952/1161); (B) First upper antemolar in occlusal view from PSH/1B (GIN 1118/1036); (C) Second upper antemolar in occlusal view from PSH/1B (GIN 1118/1027); (D) Fourth upper premolars in occlusal view from LZN/2B (D1- GIN 1130/1104) and Recent sample (D 2 - ZIN 098252); (E) First upper molar in occlusal view from BRK/1A (GIN 1115/1139); (F) Second upper molars in occlusal view from PSH/1B (F 1 - GIN 1118/1032) and Recent sample (F 2 - ZIN 105570); (G) First lower molar in occlusal view from LZN/2B (GIN 1130/1098); (H) First lower incisors from ANR/1A (H 1-2 - GIN 1112/1108; lateral and medial views) and BRK/1A (H 3 - GIN 1115/1149; medial view); (J) Damaged right hemimandible with m1-m2 and alveoli of m3 in medial view from CHR/1A (GIN 1110/1166); (K) Condylar processes in the articular view from Recent sample (K1 - ZIN 038946) and PSH/1B (K 2 - GIN 1118/1006); (L) First lower antemolars in occlusal view from LZN/2B (L 1 - GIN 1130/1103) and CHR/1A (L 2 - GIN 1110/1184); (M) Fourth lower premolars in from LZN/2B (M 1 - GIN 1130/1102; occlusal view), CHR/1A (M 2 - GIN 1110/1163; occlusal view) and BRK/1A (M 3 - GIN 1115/1125; in lateral view with m1). Star indicates reversed image. Scale bars = 1 mm.

appendix3 1

Measurements

1. Upper teeth : AW–Anterior width (M1); BL–Buccal length (P4-M2); H(I1)–First upper incisor maximal height; H(I1c)–First upper incisor superior height (from ectocingulum to top of crown); L–Tooth length (I1); LBc–Buccal length of antemolars (A1, A2); LL–Lingual length (P4-M2); LLg–Lingual length of antemolars (A1, A2); LT–First upper incisor talon length; PE–Posterior emargination length (P4, M1); PW–Posterior width (M1); RH(I1)–First upper incisor root height; W–Tooth width (A1, A2, P4, M2).

2. Lower teeth : H(i1)–First lower incisor maximal height along buccal side; L–Tooth length (i1-p4, m1, m2); PL–First lower incisor posterior length; TAL–Lower molar talonid length (m1, m2); TAW–Lower molar talonid width (m1, m2); TRL–Lower molar trigonid length (m1, m2); TRW–Lower molar trigonid width (m1, m2); W–Tooth width (a1, p4).

3. Hemimandible : COR–Height of mandibular coronoid process (from mandibular foramen to the process top); HC–Condyle height; LLF–lower condylar facet length; LUF–upper condylar facet length; MBH–mandibular body height below m2 along medial side; MRH–mandibular ramus height; MRWc–mandibular ramus width by condylar process (distance between the mandibular foramen and the upper tip of condyle).

APPENDIX 4. MEASUREMENTS

Measurements of five anourosoricin taxa from 22 late Miocene and early Pliocene Asian localities. Abbreviations see in the Appendix 3.

Measures Ishimosorex ishimiensis
gen. et sp. nov.
Paranourosorex seletiensis Paranourosorex inexspectatus
(cf.)
Paranourosorex intermedius
sp. nov.
Paranourosorex gigas
L(I1) 3.101161. 3.201160 (2) 3.301148 (1) 3.101. 3.202 (1) 3.52±0.10/3.37-3.98/
0.30 (4)
4.02±0.12/3.77-4.38/
0.25 (4)
LT 1.29. 1.37 (2) 1.39 (1) 1.001. 1.162 (2) 1.20±0.02/1.08-1.30/
0.08 (6)
1.18±0.03/1.10-1.25/
0.07 (4)
H(I1) 2.01. 2.05 (2) 2.29 (1) 2.241. 2.402 (2) 2.66±0.01/2.60-2.73/
0.04 (9)
2.89±0.04/2.83-3.03/
0.08 (4)
H(I1c) 0.93. 1.04 (2) 0.95 (1) -- 1.28±0.03/1.14-1.43/
0.10 (9)
1.43±0.01/1.40-1.45/
0.02 (3)
RH(I1) 1.221161 (1) -- -- 1.60±0.01/1.55-1.68/
0.05 (4)
1.66±0.03/1.62-1.74/
0.06 (3)
LLg(A1) -- -- -- 2.31±0.04/2.16-2.55/
0.12 (8)
2.71±0.01/2.63-2.76/
0.04 (7)
LBc(A1) -- -- -- 2.31±0.03/2.18-2.52/
0.10 (8)
2.63±0.03/2.51-2.76/
0.08 (7)
W(A1) -- -- -- 1.54±0.03/1.41-1.67/
0.09 (9)
1.68±0.02/1.63-1.76/
0.05 (7)
BL(P4) -- -- 2.80-3.001 (2) 3.01±0.05/2.84-3.23/
0.14 (6)
3.42±0.02/3.35-3.49/
0.06 (5)
W(P4) -- 2.261001 (1) 2.48. 2.521 (2) 2.61±0.06/2.21-2.78
/0.18 (8)
2.71±0.03/2.59-2.79/
0.08 (5)
LL(P4) -- 2.02 (1) -- 2.30±0.04/2.06-2.44/
0.12 (8)
2.47±0.07/2.36-2.76/
0.16 (5)
PE(P4) -- 1.83 (1) -- 2.12±0.03/1.95-2.21/
0.08 (7)
2.25±0.07/2.12-2.53/
0.15 (5)
BL(M1) 2.301155 (holotype) -- 2.52-2.641 (3) 2.70±0.02/2.63-2.77/
0.05 (7)
2.93±0.03/2.68-3.26/
0.14 (11)
AW(M1) 2.27 (holotype) -- 2.52. 2.721 (2) 2.64±0.04/2.47-2.75/
0.11 (8)
2.83±0.02/2.72-30.3/
0.10 (11)
PW(M1) 2.14 (holotype) -- 2.721 (1) 2.52±0.03/2.41-2.68/
0.09 (6)
2.69±0.04/2.39-2.98/
0.15 (11)
LL(M1) 2.26 (holotype) -- -- 2.45±0.03/2.28-2.60/
0.11 (6)
2.65±0.03/2.48-2.91/
0.11 (13)
PE(M1) 1.90 (holotype) -- -- 2.26±0.02/2.15-2.32/
0.07 (7)
2.51±0.03/2.34-2.73/
0.12 (14)
BL(M2) -- 1.741179 (1) 1.84, 1.961 (2) 2.101031 (1) 2.09±0.002/2.09-2.10/
0.005 (3)
W(M2) -- 2.14 (1) 2.16, 2.241 (2) 2.49 (1) 2.52±0.01/2.49-2.59/
0.05 (3)
LL(M2) -- 1.31 (1) -- 1.601105, 1.581031 (2) 1.06±0.02/1.50-1.77/
0.07 (8)
L(i1) 5.03±0.05/4.93-5.09/
0.08 (3)
5.603 (1) 5.76-6.001, 5.764 (4) 6.36±0.05/6.08-6.53/
0.16 (6)
7.26±0.19/6.96-7.75/
0.42 (3)
PL(i1) 1.57±0.01/1.55-1.61/
0.03 (3)
-- -- 2.19±0.04/2.01-2.34/
0.12 (6)
2.571108. 3.111021 (2)
H(i1) 1.28±0.02/1.24-1.31/
0.03 (3)
-- -- 1.56±0.02/1.47-1.69/
0.08 (8)
1.82±0.03/1.71-1.90/
0.07 (5)
L(a1)   -- -- 1.80±0.03/1.75-1.86/
0.05 (3)
2.151008, 2.351184 (2)
W(a1)   -- -- 1.30±0.005/1.29-1.31/
0.01 (3)
1.49, 1.46 (2)
L(p4) 1.751151 (1) -- 1.762 (1) 2.09±0.06/1.76-2.29/
0.18 (7)
2.40±0.19/2.00-2.91/
0.39 (4)
W(p4) 1.20 (1) -- 1.36 (1) 1.52±0.07/1.24-1.68/
0.17 (6)
1.72±0.08/1.47-1.86/
0.17 (4)
L(m1) 2.61±0.07/2.47-2.73/
0.13 (3)
2.511000 (1) 2.52, 2.561 (2) 3.03±0.02/2.76-3.25/
0.12 (26)
3.49±0.03/3.20-3.71/
0.14 (15)
TRL(m1) 1.63±0.03/1.56-1.67/
0.06 (3)
1.44 (1) -- 1.70±0.02/1.50-1.90/
0.11 (26)
1.90±0.02/1.76-2.12/0.11 (15)
TAL(m1) 0.90±0.06/0.83-1.03/
0.10 (3)
0.79 (1) -- 1.21±0.02/0.99-1.39/
0.10 (26)
1.40±0.01/1.16-1.52/
0.07 (16)
TRW(m1) 1.271158. 1.381153 1.21 (1) 1.40, 1.441 (2) 1.69±0.01/1.52-1.94/
0.08 (20)
1.88±0.02/1.70-2.07/
0.11 (13)
TAW(m1) 1.31±0.02/1.28-1.36/
0.04 (3)
1.21 (1) 1.44, 1.521 (2) 1.66±0.01/1.47-1.79/
0.08 (21)
1.84±0.03/1.51-2.11/
0.14 (16)
L(m2) 1.841154 (1) 1.781000 (1) 1.74-2.081 (7) 2.10±0.01/1.97-2.20/
0.06 (15)
2.28±0.02/2.16-2.38/
0.07 (13)
TRL(m2) 1.10 (1) 0.97 (1) -- 1.14±0.01/1.04-1.22/
0.05 (15)
1.27±0.01/1.21-1.40/
0.06 (13)
TAL(m2) 0.68 (1) 0.75 (1) -- 0.90±0.01/0.73-1.01/
0.06 (15)
0.96±0.02/0.82-1.09/
0.07 (13)
TRW(m2) 1.05 (1) 0.96 (1) 1.08-1.241 (6) 1.26±0.009/1.21-1.34/
0.03 (10)
1.39±0.01/1.28-1.52/
0.06 (13)
TAW(m2) 1.00 (1) 0.95 (1) 1.12-1.281 (5) 1.21±0.01/1.15-1.33/
0.04 (12)
1.31±0.02/1.17-1.42/
0.07 (13)
COR 5.221152 (1) 5.181000 (1) -- -- 7.101166 (1)
MBH -- 2.08 (1) 2.684, 2.68-2.801 (4) 2.84±0.10/2.65-3.02/
0.18 (4)
2.99±0.06/2.66-3.20/
0.18 (7)
MRH 6.24 (1) 6.22 (1) -- -- 8.831166 (1)
MRWc 4.44 (1) 3.98 (1) -- 5.961167 (1) 5.88±0.05/5.59-6.03/
0.17 (4)
HC 3.361152 (1) 3.301000 (1) -- 4.461123. 4.481167 (2) 4.90±0.09/4.68-5.12/
0.19 (4)
LLF 2.01 (1) 2.24 (1) -- 2.85. 2.88 (2) 3.38±0.08/3.23-3.64/
0.17 (4)
LUF 1.27 (1) 1.22 (1) -- 1.371167. 1.611123 (2) 2.00±0.07/1.87-2.20/
0.15 (4)

Notes: 1Ertemte 2 by Storch and Zazhigin (1996: 264); 2Har Obo 2 by Storch and Zazhigin (1996: 264); 3Selety 1A (paratype GIN 951/1002 is lost) by Storch and Zazhigin (1996: 264); 4Ertemte 1 by Storch and Zazhigin (1996: 264).

APPENDIX 5. MEASUREMENTS AND ASSOCIATION OF FRAGMENTARY FINDINGS

APPENDIX TABLE 5.1. Measurements of Anourosorex squamipes (AS), Paranourosorex gigas (PG), P. seletiensis (PSt) with calculated linear ratio for 'association of fragmentary findings' (see main text and Methods section). Measurements are presented as the mean, standard error of mean, range, standard deviation, number of specimens in parentheses. Abbreviations as in Appendix 3.

Characters in ratio estimation A, mm B, mm Index (A*100/B), % Note
AS. *A = BL(M1); **B = L(m1) 2.64±0.04/
2.38-2.88/0.16 (15)
2.84±0.04/
2.62-3.16/0.16 (14)
92.42±0.68/
87.67-96.91/2.56 (14)
BL(M1) is 92% of L(m1)
AS. xA = H(I1); **B = L(m1) 2.34±0.04/
2.12-2.63/0.17 (14)
2.84±0.04/
2.62-3.16/0.16 (14)
82.2±1.05/
74.64-91.63/3.94 (14)
H(I1) is 82% of L(m1)
AS. yA = L(I1); yy B = L(i1) ZIN 98253 = 2.90
98255 = 2.82
98253 = 5.38
98255 = 5.39
98253 = 53.80/
98255 = 52.40
L(I1) is about 53% of L(i1)
AS. **A = L(m1); yy B = L(i1) 98253 = 2.62
98255 = 2.66
98253 = 5.64
98255 = 5.48
98253 = 46.45
98255 = 48.54
L(m1) is about 47% of L(i1)
PG. A = L(m1); B = COR 3.55GIN 951/1166 (1) 7.101166 (1) 50 (1) L(m1) is 50% of COR
PSt. A = L(m1); B = COR 2.511000 (1) 5.181000 (1) 48.4 (1) L(m1) is 48.4% of COR
PG. A = L(m1); B = MRWc 3.551166 (1) 5.981166 (1) 59.36 (1) L(m1) is 59.36% of MRWc
PSt. A = L(m1); B = MRWc 2.511000 (1) 3.981000 (1) 63.06 (1) L(m1) is 63.06% of MRWc
AS. A = W(M2); B = L(m1) 2.22±0.04/
1.94-2.46/0.16 (14)
2.84±0.04/
2.62-3.16/0.16 (14)
78.07±1.04/
72.11-85.12/3.9 (14)
W(M2) is 78% of L(m1)

Notes: the table links Figure 5.1 (below), therefore, *–observed measurement of first upper molar of A. squamipes (A = D2 in figure), **–observed measurement of first lower molar (B = D1), x,y–observed measurements of first upper incisor (A = D3), yy–observed measurement of first lower incisor (B = D4).

 

 

APPENDIX FIGURE 5.1. Explanatory image for 'Size Recovery' approach based on dentition of A. squamipes used as reference. A, Skull in lateral view; B, Rigth hemimandible in medial view; C, Upper tooth row in occlusal view; D, Four 'dental elements' used for determining the reference relationships (D1, first lower molar in occlusal view; D2, first upper molar in occlusal view; D3, first upper incisor in buccal view; D4, first lower incisor in lateral view). Abbreviations: red frames marks teeth used for analysis; blue frame confines teeth under the same scale, i.e. the size relations are original; coloured bands display size relationship between the particular measurements.

appendix5 1

 

 

 

APPENDIX TABLE 5.2. Estimated and observed measurements of anourosoricin taxa from late Miocene-early Pliocene Asian localities with calculated the linear ratio for 'association of fragmentary findings' (see the main text). Green colour marks the coincidence in supposed and observed dimensions; pink–shows disagreement. Red frame marks columns of matching between supposed (recovered) value and observed; Mtch.–matching column; '≈'–if observed value lays in a supposed range; '≠'–if observed value lays out a supposed range; other abbreviations also see in Appendix Table 5.1 above.

 

Taxon: Characters in ratio estimation A, mm   Supposed B, mm Mtch. Observed C, mm   Reference ratio (see Table 5.1) and size recovering formula
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = BL(M1) GIN 951/1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  2.28-2.52 1155 = 2.30   Anourosorex: 92.42±0.68/
87.67-96.91/2.56 (14)
(A*92.42%)/100% = B
Paranourosorex intermedius sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = BL(M1) 3.03±0.02/2.76-3.25/
0.12 (26)
  2.80±0.02/2.55-3.00/
0.11 (26)
2.70±0.02/2.63-2.77/
0.05 (7)
Paranourosorex gigas: A = L(m1); B = BL(M1) 3.49±0.03/3.20-3.71/
0.14 (15)
  3.22±0.03/2.95-3.42/
0.13 (15)
2.93±0.03/2.68-3.26/
0.14 (11)
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = H(I1) 1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  2.03-2.24 1160 = 2.05
1161 = 2.01
  Anourosorex: 82.2±1.05/74.64-91.63/
3.94 (14)
(A*82.20%)/100% = B
Paranourosorex intermedius sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = H(I1) 3.03±0.02/2.76-3.25/
0.12 (26)
  2.49±0.01/2.26-2.67/
0.10 (26)
2.66±0.01/2.60-2.73/
0.04 (9)
Paranourosorex gigas: A = L(m1); B = H(I1) 3.49±0.03/3.20-3.71/
0.14 (15)
  2.87±0.02/2.63-3.04/
0.11 (15)
2.89±0.04/2.83-3.03/
0.08 (4)
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: *A = L(I1); **B = L(i1) 1160 = 3.20
1161 = 3.10
  6.02-6.21 1149 = 5.09
1150 = 5.08
1159 = 4.93
  Anourosorex:
98253 = 53.80
98255 = 52.40 (m = 53.1)
x(A*100%)/53.1% = B
Paranourosorex intermedius sp. nov.: A = L(I1); B = L(i1) 3.52±0.10/3.37-3.98/
0.30 (4)
  6.64±0.20/6.34-7.49/
0.56 (4)
6.36±0.05/6.08-6.53/
0.16 (6)
Paranourosorex gigas: A = L(I1); B = L(i1) 4.02±0.12/3.77-4.38/
0.25 (4)
  7.58±0.24/7.09-8.24/
0.48 (4)
7.26±0.19/6.96-7.75/
0.42 (3)
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = L(i1) 1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  5.20-5.74 1149 = 5.09
1150 = 5.08
1159 = 4.93
  Anourosorex:
98253 = 46.45
98255 = 48.54 (m = 47.49)
(A*100%)/47.49% = B
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = COR 1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  4.94-5.46 1152 = 5.22   P. gigas: 50%
(A*100%)/50% = B
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = COR 1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  5.10-5.64 1152 = 5.22   P. seletiensis: 48.4%
(A*100%)/48.4% = B
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = MRWc 1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  4.16-4.59 1152 = 4.44   P. gigas: 59.36%
(A*100%)/59.36% = B
Ishimosorex ishimiensis gen. et sp. nov.: A = L(m1); B = MRWc 1153 = 2.73
1157 = 2.47
1158 = 2.63
  3.91-4.32 1152 = 4.44   P. seletiensis: 63.06%
(A*100%)/63.06% = B

Notes: the table links Figure 5.2 (below), therefore, *–specimen GIN 952/1161 from Site AA (Figure 5.2), **–specimen GIN 1115/1149 from Site BB (Figure 5.2); x–if A is lesser than B, then REF,% become a common divisor..

 

 

 

APPENDIX FIGURE 5.2. Suggested work flow for test the belonging disparate elements to the same shrew taxon, summarizing three steps of the main phases (a, b1, b2), accordingly the 'Size Recovery' approach description (see the Methods section). Abbreviations: (a)–first step showed in Figure 5.1 (Appendix 5); (b1)–size recovering via the reference values (corresponds to b1 in Methods section); (b2)–matching step (corresponds to b2 in Methods section); Site AA–Petropavlovsk 1A; Site BB–Borki 1A; A, mm–original (observed) measurement of specimen (e.g. first upper incisor) from Site AA; B, mm–recovered (supposed) measurement of hypotetical specimen (e.g. first lower incisor);C, mm–original (observed) measurement of specimen (e.g. first lower incisor) from Site BB; REF,%–a value (%) of a reference element (e.g. calculated by a modern species). Details see in the Methods section.

appendix5 2

 

 

 

APPENDIX 6. 3D MODEL OF ANOUROSOREX DENTITION

The upper and lower teeth of Anourosorex squamipes in occlusion with the explanatory images on worn facets disposition

Image description. Anourosorex squamipes upper and lower tooth-rows. A. 3D-reconstruction of upper tooth-row and right hemimandible with lower teeth; the tooth-rows in occlusion, in lateral view. B. 3D-reconstruction of the left upper tooth-row in occlusal view. C. Matched upper and lower tooth-rows; upper teeth in transparent view. D. Matched P4-M1/m1 for displaying relation between the crown elements (D 1, in lateral view; D 2, turned view). The red arrows show attrition between the metaloph of M1 (light green) and hypolophid (blue) of m1. Unscaled. 3D-reconstruction based on micro-CT scanning (models unpublished).

appendix6

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