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TABLE 1. Numbers and Descriptions of All Landmarks. Directionality of character naming reflects orientation in Figure 3. Characters labeled and named according to Hutchison (1968).

Landmark Description
1 Distal end of lesser tuberosity
2 Proximal end of lesser tuberosity
3 Proximal end of greater tuberosity
4 Distal end of greater tuberosity
5 Inflection between greater tuberosity and teres tubercle
6 Proximal end of teres tubercle
7 Greatest point of curvature on teres tubercle
8 Distal end of teres tubercle
9 Inflection between teres tubercle and minor sulcus
10 Greatest point of curvature of minor sulcus
11 Inflection between minor sulcus and entepicondylar process
12 Inflection between M. flexor digitorum ligament and trochlea
13 Lateral aspect of trochlea
14 Medial aspect of trochlea
15 Inflection between capitulum and major sulcus
16 Greatest point of curvature of major sulcus
17 Inflection between major sulcus and greater tubercle
18 Pectoral tubercle
19 Superior aspect of capitulum
20 Medial aspect of capitulum
21 Inferior aspect of capitulum
22 Lateral aspect of capitulum
23 Entepicondylar foramen
24 Fossa of the M. flexor digitorum ligament

 

 

TABLE 2. Defining Locomotor Categories. Locomotor categories used in this study and their definitions were modified from Polly (2007).

Locomotor
category
Description
Terrestrial Spends most of time foraging on ground. May maintain a burrow for sleeping.
Semi-aquatic Spends most of time foraging in water. May maintain a burrow for sleeping.
Semi-fossorial Spends time foraging underground and on the surface.
Fossorial Fully subterranean lifestyle.

 

 

TABLE 3. Desman Tooth Size Comparisons with Magnatalpa fumamons gen. et sp. nov.material. A-P is anteroposterior length. B-L is buccolingual width. Measurements in mm. Min-max ranges provided for those with multiple samples. The ranges for Archaeodesmana include all 9 accepted species (A. pontica, A. vinea, A. turolensis, A. adroveri, A. luteyni, A. major, A. dekkersi, A. brailloni and A. bifida). The ranges for Desmana includes five accepted fossil species (D. kowalskae, D. nehringi, D. inflata, D. thermalis, and D. marci).

Taxon M1 m2
A-P B-L A-P B-L
Desmana moschata (n = 8) 2.95 - 4.60 2.55 - 4.70 2.25 - 4.00 3.00 - 3.32
(n = 3)
Desmana (Minwer-Barakat et al., 2020) 2.20 - 2.90 -- 2.50 - 3.40 --
Galemys pyrenaicus (n = 12) 2.35 - 3.30 2.20 - 3.39 2.20 - 2.95 1.18 - 2.11
(n = 8)
Mygalinia hungarica (Rzebik-Kowalska and Rekovets, 2016) -- -- 2.00 - 2.10 (n = 4) 1.30 - 1.40
(n = 4)
Mygalea magna (van den Hoek Ostende and Fejfar, 2016) 1.77 - 2.05 (n = 8) 1.94 - 2.19 (n = 8) 1.87 - 2.26 (n = 60) 1.23 - 1.29
(n = 60)
Archaeodesmana (Martín-Suárez et al., 2001) 2.60 - 3.50 2.00 - 3.10 2.10 - 2.70 --
Lemoynea biradicularis (Bown, 1980) 2.71 - 2.72 2.92 - 3.08 2.17 - 2.28 1.56 - 1.75
ETMNH 20747 3.41 3.35 - -
ETMNH 20779 3.57 3.43 - -
ETMNH 9664 - - 2.98 2.37

 

 

TABLE 4. Postcranial Measurements for Parascalops grayensis sp. nov. Measurements in mm. * indicates incomplete specimens.

  Humerus Radius Ulna

ETMNH specimen

Total length

Proximal width

Distal Width

Greater tuberosity

Lesser tuberosity

Total length

Width of lunar
articular facet

Diaphysis length

Total length

Length without
olecranon process

6939 14 8.81 8.67 5.92 4.66 - - - - -
6940* 14.9 10.59 8.4 6.46 5.35 - - - - -
12305* 10.57 - - - - - - - - -
20736* 14.76 10.41 8.31 6.68 5.75 - - - - -
14849 - - - - - 11.21 2.34 9.44 - -
20754 - - - - - - - - 18.09 14.19

 

 

TABLE 5. Comparing Sizes of all Species of Parascalops. Measurements in mm. * indicates incomplete specimens.

Taxon Humerus length Ulna length Radius length
Parascalops breweri 12.3 - 15.4
(n = 22)
12.73 - 13.45
(n = 12)
8.67 - 10.11
(n = 11)
Parascalops fossilis 10.70
(n = 2)
-- --
Parascalops grayensis sp. nov. 13.48 - 15.52
(n = 4)
13.33* - 14.34
(n = 2)
10.26
(n = 1)

 

 

TABLE 6. Measurements for GFS Mioscalops sp. Measurements in mm. * indicates incomplete specimens.

ETMNH specimen Humerus Ulna
Total
length
Proximal
width
Distal
width
Greater
tuberosity
Lesser
tuberosity
Total
length
Length without
olecranon process
20745* 4.48 - 3.60 - - - -
6942 7.99 5.19 3.46 3.02 3.00 - -
9565* 6.19 - 4.31 - - - -
10345* 5.46 - - - - - -
6941 8.16 5.23 4.06 3.38 3.24 - -
20740 8.01 5.26 4.01 3.72 3.04 - -
20738* - - - - - 9.80 9.41

 

 

TABLE 7. Measurements for Neurotrichus sp. Tri is trigonid length. Tal is talonid length. All measurements in mm.

ETMNH specimen Humerus Teeth
Total length Distal Width m1 m2 m3
Width Tri Tal Width Tri Tal Width Tri Tal
20741 7.19 3.05 - - - - - - - - -
9728 - - 1.57 0.91 1.04 1.69 0.98 1.08 - - -
9713 - - - - - - - - 1.40 0.95 0.90
20737 - - 1.6 0.94 1.14 - - - 1.46 0.94 0.90

 

 

TABLE 8. Eigenvalues, % Variance of Axes, and Wilks’ Lambda for CVA.

Function Eigenvalue % of
Variance
Canonical
Correlation
Wilks’
Lambda
Significance
CV1 35.635 75.0 0.986 0.001 0.000
CV2 10.244 21.6 0.954 0.034 0.000
CV3 1.362 3.4 0.787 0.380 0.000

 

 

TABLE 9. Canonical Variates Analysis Classification for All Talpids.

  Predicted Group Membership Total
  Category Fossorial Terrestrial Semi-aquatic Semi-fossorial
Original Count Fossorial 57 0 0 0 57
Terrestrial 0 18 0 0 18
Semi-aquatic 0 0 4 0 4
Semi-fossorial 1 0 0 55 56
% Fossorial 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Terrestrial 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Semi-aquatic 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0
Semi-fossorial 1.9 0.0 0.0 98.1 100.0
Cross-validated Count Fossorial 57 0 0 0 57
Terrestrial 0 16 2 0 18
Semi-aquatic 0 0 3 1 4
Semi-fossorial 2 0 1 53 56
% Fossorial 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Terrestrial 0.0 88.9 11.1 0.0 100.0
Semi-aquatic 0.0 0.0 75.0 25.0 100.0
Semi-fossorial 3.7 0.0 1.9 94.4 100.0

 

 

TABLE 10. Classification of Fossils. P(D/G) represents the conditional probability of the observed discriminant function score, given membership in the most likely group. P(G/D) represents the posterior probability that a case belongs to the predicted group, given the sample used to create the discriminant model.

Case Taxon Predicted group P(D>d | G=g) P(G=g | D=d)
88 Condylura kowalskii Semi-fossorial 0.291 1.000
89 Desmanella gudrunae Terrestrial 0.749 1.000
90 Desmanodon crocheti Semi-fossorial 0.244 1.000
91 Desmanodon fluegeli Semi-fossorial 0.921 1.000
92 Gaillardia thompsoni Terrestrial 0.272 1.000
96 Geotrypus montisasini Semi-fossorial 0.503 1.000
97 Leptoscaptor robustor Fossorial 0.440 1.000
98 Mioscalops sp. ETMNH 6941 Semi-fossorial 0.211 1.000
99 Mioscalops sp. ETMNH 6942 Fossorial 0.122 1.000
100 Mygalea magna Semi-aquatic 0.001 0.521
101 Myxomygale minor Semi-fossorial 0.000 1.000
102 ? Rzebikia polonicus Semi-fossorial 0.351 1.000
103 Parascalops grayensis ETMNH 6939 Fossorial 0.009 1.000
104 Parascalops grayensis ETMNH 6940 Fossorial 0.561 1.000
105 Parascalops fossilis Fossorial 0.253 1.000
106 Proscapanus sansansiensis Semi-fossorial 0.327 1.000
107 Quyania chowi Semi-fossorial 0.177 1.000
108 Quyania cf. Q. europaea Semi-fossorial 0.088 1.000
109 Quyania polonicus Semi-fossorial 0.645 1.000
110 Mioscalops sp. A Semi-fossorial 0.120 1.000
111 Mioscalops ripafodiator Semi-fossorial 0.228 1.000
112 Mioscalops sp. E Semi-fossorial 0.270 1.000
113 Tenuibrachiatum storchi Semi-fossorial 0.635 1.000
122 Yanshuella primaeva Semi-fossorial 0.003 0.977
123 Yunoscaptor scalprum Semi-fossorial 0.087 1.000
134 Neurotrichus sp. ETMNH 4915 Semi-fossorial 0.092 1.000
135 Neurotrichus sp. ETMNH 10277 Semi-fossorial 0.080 1.000

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