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TABLE 1. The studied bioerosional ichnotaxa reported on the turtle remains, stratigraphic range, impacted surface(s), their producers and ethological categories. * ‒ ichnotaxa recorded for the first time in Egypt.

Trace fossil Stratigraphic range Impacted surface(s) Trace makers Ethological category
1. Nihilichnus nihilicus
Mikuláš et al., 2006
(Figure 3A)
Middle Triassic‒Lower Palaeocene Carapace Scavengers and predators (Milàn et al., 2011) Praedichnia (predation
or scavenging traces)
2. Karethraichnus lakkos
Zonneveld et al., 2016
(Figure 3B, C)
Campanian (this study)‒Recent Carapace and Plastron Multiple trace makers may produce similar traces
(the ectoparasites ticks, barnacles (Zonneveld et al., 2016)
3. * Cubiculum ornatus
Roberts et al., 2007
(Figure 3D, E)
Middle Jurassic‒Pleistocene Carapace Larvae of dermestid beetles (Kitching, 1980; Martin and West, 1995; Hasiotis et al., 1999; Ozeki et al., 2020; Perea et al., 2020) Pupichnia
4. * Cubiculum inornatus
(Xing et al., 2015)
(Figure 3D, F)
Campanian (this study)‒Middle Triassic Carapace Indeterminate osteophagous insect (Xing et al., 2015;
Paes Neto et al., 2016)
5. * Cubiculum isp.
(Figure 3G,
Figure 4F)
Campanian (this study) Carapace Dermestid beetles Pupichnia
6. * Osteocallis mandibulus
Roberts et al., 2007
(Figure 3D, H,
Figure 4A, B)
Upper Triassic‒Lower Pliocene Carapace Feeding by osteophagous insects produced by silphid and
histerid beetles (Roberts et al., 2007)
7. Radulichnus inopinatus
Voigt, 1977
(Figure 4C, D)
Middle Devonian‒Pleistocene Carapace Gastropods and polyplacophorans (chitons)
(Voigt, 1977; Jagt, 2003; Gibert et al., 2007;
Lopesa and Pereira, 2019; Collareta et al., 2023a)
8. * Osteichnus ossiobontum
(Thenius, 1988a)
(Figure 4E)
Upper Jurassic‒Upper Miocene Carapace Attributed to osteophagous insects nymphs of
mayflies (Thenius, 1988a)
9. * Osedacoides jurassicus
Karl et al., 2012
(Figure 4F)
Upper Jurassic‒Campanian (this study Carapace Osteophagous polychaetes (Karl et al., 2012) Fodinichnia
10. * Sulculites bellus
Vialov and Nessov, 1974
(Figure 4G)
Albian‒Campanian (this study) Carapace Unknown organisms, may be worms Fodinichnia
11. * Machichnus ? bohemicus
Mikuláš et al., 2006
(Figure 4H)
Campanian (this study)‒Lower Palaeocene Carapace Rodent probably teeth of fishes and crocodile
(Mikuláš et al., 2006; Mikuláš and Dvořák, 2010)
Praedichnia (predation
or scavenging traces)

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