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FIGURE 1. Map of sites where new fossil coral collections were made. 1) Map of the Central Indo-Pacific region with Sarawak, Negros and Cebu marked in black. The two rectangles border Sarawak (left), and Negros and Cebu (right). 2) Sarawak with two localities from the Subis Limestone (SL1 and SL2) and one locality from the Melinau Limestone (ML). 3) Close up of islands of Negros and Cebu in the Philippines. TBL locality from Negros in indicated. Black rectangle and white dot on in the southern part of Cebu mark general position of the localities shown in 4. 4) Map of the studied localities on Cebu: seven localities from the Calagasan Formation (CF1, CF2, CF4, CF5, CF6, CF7 and CF10) and three localities from the Butong Limestone Formation (BLF1, BLF2 and BLF4). From Mihaljević et al. 2017.

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FIGURE 2. 1) Acropora sp. A, QMF58030, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragment with reticulate coenosteum and uneven spacing between corallites. 2) Acropora sp. A, QMF58030, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Cross-section through the branch outlining the axial corallite. 3) Acropora sp. B, QMF58038, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragment with costate coenosteum. 4) Alveopora cf. fenestrata, QMF58045, Melinau Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Irregularly shaped corallites with lattice-like walls. 5) Alveopora cf. fenestrata, QMF58045, Melinau Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Massive colony preserved in dense limestone matrix. 6) Astreopora cf. expansa, QMF58047, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Bifacial plate with uneven spacing between immersed corallites. 7) Astreopora cf. digitata, QMF58053, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen. Discrete (monocentric) corallites surrounded by reticulate coenosteum. 8) Astreopora cf. digitata, QMF58048, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen. Massive colony preserved in dense limestone matrix. Scale bars equal 2 mm (7); 3 mm (4); 5 mm (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8).

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FIGURE 3. 1) Gardineroseris cf. planulata, QMF58057, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting colony with corallites/short valleys irregular in shape and relief. 2) Leptoseris sp. A, QMF58075, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting colony with dense and irregular folds on the surface. 3-5) Pachyseris spp., laminar and unifacial colonies with mostly parallel valleys. Examples here show variation in width and length of valleys: QMF58098, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (3); QMF58111, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (4); QMF58113, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. 6) Pavona cf. clavus, QMF58116, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Columnar colony with sub-circular corallites interconnected by prominent costosepta. 7-8) Pavona cf. venosa, encrusting colonies with discrete corallites (one to three centers). Examples here show variation in width and outline of corallites: QMF58118, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (7); QMF58121, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (8). Scale bars equal 5 mm.

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FIGURE 4. 1) Trochocyathus cf. schmidti, QMF58127, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Solitary coral, oval in outline with papillose columella. 2) Trochocyathus cf. schmidti, QMF58127, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Lateral view of coral showing its conical shape. 3) Galaxea sp. A, QMF58141, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting colony with cylindrical corallites. 4) Galaxea sp. A, QMF58139, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Colony preserved in dense limestone. 5) Fungia spp., QMF58144, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Solitary coral with only aboral surface preserved. 6) Acanthastrea cf. echinata, QMF58151, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colony with corallites rounded to elliptical in outline. 7) Acanthastrea sp. A, QMF58148, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colony with irregularly shaped corallites. 8) Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii, QMF58153, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Phaceloid to flabello-meandroid colony with both monocentric corallite and short valley preserved. Scale bars equal 5 mm (1, 2, 3, 4); 10 mm (5, 6, 7, 8).

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FIGURE 5. 1) Astrea sp. A, QMF58492, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting to massive colony with monocentric corallites and no relief preserved. 2) Astrea sp. B, QMF58494, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting colony with slightly elevated corallite walls. 3) Astrea sp. C, QMF58498, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Massive colony with monocentric corallites and sometimes visible costosepta. 4) Coelastrea sp. A, QMF58206, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting to massive colony with corallites polygonal and irregular in outline. 5-6) Cyphastrea cf. serailia, massive colonies with spinose coenosteum and small (< 4 mm), monocentric corallites. Examples here show variation in preservation of coenosteum structure and septa: QMF58161, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (5); QMF58166, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (6). 7) Cyphastrea sp. A, QMF58497, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colonies with and small (< ~4 mm), monocentric corallites but no preservation of coenosteum texture or corallite relief. Scale bars equal 5 mm (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7); 10 mm (4).

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FIGURE 6. 1) Dipsastraea sp. A, QMF58185, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colony with tubular and exsert corallites. 2) Dipsastraea sp. B, QMF58205, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting to massive colony with irregularly-shaped, monocentric corallites and varying amount of coenosteum (moderate amount, < corallite diameter). 3-4) Dipsastraea cf. speciosa, massive colony with monocentric corallites, round in outline. Examples here show variation in preservation of the morphospecies in different lithologies: QMF58309, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen (3); QMF58298, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (4). 5) Favites sp. A, QMF58213, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colony with round to elliptical corallites with visible budding. Scale bars equal 5 mm (1, 3, 4, 5); 10 mm (2).

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FIGURE 7. 1) Favites cf. chinensis, QMF58206, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting to massive colony with monocentric corallites, polygonal and irregular in outline. 2) Favites cf. pentagona tenuis, QMF58296, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting to massive colony with discrete (one to three centers) corallites, irregular in outline. 3) Favites sp. B, QMF58495, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colonies with monocentric corallites, round in outline. 4-7) Favites spp., Massive colonies with monocentric circular corallites, round in outline, and well-developed costosepta. Examples here show variation in preservation between different lithologies: QMF58321, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen. Intracalicular budding visible (4); QMF58333, Melinau Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Costosepta well-preserved (5); QMF58316, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Surface of the specimen with visible relief (6); QMF58316, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen (7). Scale bars equal 5 mm (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7); 10 mm (2).

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FIGURE 8. 1) Goniastrea cf. stelligera, QMF58175, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Corallites monomorphic and discrete (one to three centers), irregular in outline. 2) Goniastrea cf. stelligera, QMF58167, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting to massive colony with uneven colony relief. 3) Hydnophora cf. microconos, QMF58230, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through a massive colony. Monticule outlines visible - note the position of columella and direction of septa. 4-5) Leptoria cf. phrygia, massive to encrusting colony with uniserial corallites (valleys). Examples here show variation in preservation of the morphospecies in different lithologies: QMF58253, Melinau Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen (4); QMF58243, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Colony with preserved relief (5). 6) Paramontastraea sp. A, QMF58502, Melinau Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Cross-section through the specimen. Massive colony with densely arranged corallites, round in outline. Scale bars equal 5 mm.

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FIGURE 9. 1-2) Platygyra cf. lamellina, encrusting to massive colony with uniserial corallites. Examples here show variation in preservation: QMF58269, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Specimen has both septal arrangement or colony relief preserved (1); QMF58256, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Specimen has only septal arrangement preserved (2). 3-5) Trachyphyllia cf. constricta, phaceloid (flabello-meandroid) corallum with large corallites (> 15 mm): QMF58474, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Top view on the corallum showing septal arrangement and columella (3); QMF58474, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Longitudinal view through the corallum (4); QMF58474, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Lateral view on the corallum showing prominent costa (5). 6) Stylophora spp., QMF58346, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Branching colony with small corallites and characteristic styliform columella. Branches lithified together and surrounded by grainstone matrix. 7) Stylophora cf. pistillata, QMF58361, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Fragment of flat colony branch with blunt tip. 8) Stylophora cf. pistillata, QMF58361, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Monocentric and round corallites with two septal cycles and styliform columella. Scale bars equal 2 mm (6, 8); 5 mm (1, 2, 7); 10 mm (3, 4, 5).

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FIGURE 10. 1) Dictyaraea cf. anomala, QMF58365, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragment (elliptical in cross-section) with monocentric corallites, elliptical to polygonal in outline. 2) Dictyaraea cf. micrantha, QMF58369, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragment (flattened) with monocentric corallites, round to elliptical in outline. 3) Dictyaraea cf. micrantha, QMF58368, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragments lithified together and surrounded by grainstone matrix.4) Goniopora cf. tenuidens, QMF58372, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colony with monocentric and mostly round corallites with weak to moderate paliform lobes. Overall preservation poor. 5-6) Goniopora cf. planulata, branching colony with monocentric corallites, mostly round or irregular in outline: QMF58381, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragment (5); QMF58381, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (6). 7-8) Goniopora cf. palmensis, Branching colony with branches mostly circular in cross-section. Corallites monomorphic, monocentric, mostly round in outline: QMF58390, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu (7); QMF58396, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Close up view of the corallites (8). 9) Porites sp. A, QMF58365, Trankalan/Binaguiohan (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Negros. Columnar colony, poorly preserved but “spongy” skeleton structure and corallite outline visible. Scale bars equal 5 mm.

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FIGURE 11. 1-4) Porites spp., Massive colonies with small, immersed, round or polygonal corallites. Examples here show variation in preservation of the morphospecies in different lithologies: QMF58405, Subis Limestone (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Sarawak. Close up view of the corallites (1); QMF58400, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Close up view of the corallites (2); QMF58401, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Small massive colony (3); QMF58409, Trankalan/Binaguiohan (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Negros. Close up view of the corallites (4). 5) Actinastrea cf. minutissima, QMF58462, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Branch fragment. 6) Actinastrea cf. minutissima, QMF58425, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Close up view of the corallites. Example of poor preservation. 7) Actinastrea cf. minutissima, QMF58425, Butong Formation (late Oligocene - late Chattian), Cebu. Close up view of the corallites. Example of good preservation. 8) Blastomussa cf. simplicitexta, QMF58505, Trankalan/Binaguiohan (early Miocene - Aquitanian), Negros. Massive colony with monocentric corallites and limited coenosteum. Overall preservation poor. 9) Leptastrea cf. transversa, QMF58484, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Encrusting colony, with irregular relief and corallites irregular in outline. 10) Leptastrea sp. A, QMF58487, Calagasan Formation (late Oligocene - middle Chattian), Cebu. Massive colony, with corallites irregular in outline. Scale bars equal 1 mm (6, 7); 2 mm (1, 2, 5); 5 mm (4, 8, 9); 10 mm (3, 10).

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FIGURE 12. The number of morphospecies relative to the number of museum lots in different geologic formations. Geologic formation abbreviations: CF - Calagasan Formation, BLF - Butong Limestone Formation, TBL - Trankalan/Binaguiohan Limestone, ML - Melinau Limestone, SL - Subis Limestone.

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FIGURE 13. Cluster dendogram for coral communities (morphospecies level) in each site. Geologic formation abbreviations: CF - Calagasan Formation, BLF - Butong Limestone Formation, TBL - Trankalan/Binaguiohan Limestone, ML - Melinau Limestone, SL - Subis Limestone, bold - limestone formations, Chattian - *, Aquitanian - **.

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FIGURE 14. The number of morphospecies described from each coral family.

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FIGURE 15. Relative abundance of colony shapes within each studied formation. Numbers above the bars represent absolute number of morphospecies. Geologic formation abbreviations: CF - Calagasan Formation, BLF - Butong Limestone Formation, TBL - Trankalan/Binaguiohan Limestone, ML - Melinau Limestone, SL - Subis Limestone.

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