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TABLE 1. Age, tectonic and depositional settings of studied geological formations. Modified from Mihaljević et al., 2017.

Geological Formation Age Tectonic setting Depositional setting References
Butong Limestone Formation (Cebu) late Oligocene - early Miocene Backarc setting? Oblique convergence Isolated low relief buildups Porth et al., 1989; Wilson, 2002; Aurelio and Peña, 2010.
Calagasan Formation
(Cebu)
late Oligocene Overlying the Butong Limestone Coral rich limestone lenses within a shale Aurelio and Peña, 2010; Mihaljević et al., 2017
Melinau Limestone
(Sarawak)
Eocene - early Miocene Isolated carbonate platform, basin margin Carbonate platform, some marginal deposits, coral patch reefs only noted in Miocene Adams and Haak, 1962; Adams, 1965; Wannier, 2009; Mihaljević et al., 2014
Subis Limestone
(Sarawak)
early Miocene Baram Balabac Basin margin Isolated carbonate platform formed on palaeohigh Adams, 1965; Mihaljević et al., 2014
Trankalan/Binaguiohan Limestone (Negros) late Oligocene - early Miocene Unclear Carbonate platform with localized patch reefs Jurgan and Domingo, 1989; Porth et al., 1989; Aurelio and Peña, 2010

 

 

TABLE 2. An overview of the fossil collection localities with geological formation, their age and latitude and longitude coordinates. From Mihaljević et al., 2017.

Locality Geological Formation Age Lat/long
CF1 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°54'22.9''
E 123°29'56''
CF2 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°53'42.3''
E 123°29'46.2''
CF4 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°53'0.49''
E 123°29'49.33''
CF5 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°53'13.3''
E 123°29'49.5''
CF6 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°54'7.4''
E 123°29'44.8''
CF7 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°54'7.1''
E 123°30'5.5''
CF10 Calagasan Formation late Oligocene
(middle Chattian)
N 9°53'13''
E 123° 29' 49.75''
BLF1 Butong Limestone Formation late Oligocene
(late Chattian)
N 9°54'23.2''
E 123° 29' 51.5''
BLF2 Butong Limestone Formation late Oligocene
(late Chattian)
N 9°54'20.6''
E 123°29'53.8''
BLF4 Butong Limestone Formation late Oligocene
(late Chattian)
N 9°54'37.7''
E 123°30'4''
TBL Trankalan/Binaguiohan Limestone early Miocene
(Aquitanian)
N 9°48'7.89''
E 122°37'17.56''
ML Melinau Limestone early Miocene
(Aquitanian)
N 4° 1' 57.9"
E 114° 47' 19°
SL1 Subis Limestone early Miocene
(Aquitanian)
N 3° 46' 45.66"
E 113° 46' 50.95"
SL2 Subis Limestone early Miocene
(Aquitanian)
N 3° 46' 42.82"
E 113° 47' 15.68"

 

 

TABLE 3. Comparison of taxonomic differences between morphospecies within genus Astrea.

Morphospecies Colony shape Average corallite
width (mm)
Coenosteum amount Number of septa
per 5 mm
Preservation remarks
Astrea sp. A encrusting to massive 7.72 - 11.37 moderate (<corallite diameter) eight to 11 no relief preserved
Astrea sp. B encrusting 4.47 - 9.28 moderate (<corallite diameter) but more widely than Astrea sp. 1 eight to 11 slightly (< 1 mm) elevated walls
Astrea sp. C massive 5.19 - 10.73 moderate (<corallite diameter) six to 11 some relief preserved, poorly

 

 

TABLE 4. Comparison of taxonomic differences between morphospecies within genus Dipsastraea.

Morphospecies Colony
shape
Average corallite
width (mm)
Corallite outline Corallite relief Paliform lobes
Dipsastraea cf. speciosa massive 4.22 - 9.3 round ~3 weak to moderate
Dipsastraea sp. A massive 4.67 - 6.34 tubular, exsert 3.05 - 5.65 weak to moderate
Dipsastraea sp. B encrusting to massive 5.94 - 13.64 irregular 3.23 - 5.51 weak

 

 

TABLE 5. Comparison of taxonomic differences between morphospecies within genus Favites.

Morphospecies Colony shape Average corallite
width (mm)
Corallite discrete Corallite outline Number of septa per 5 mm
Favites cf. chinensis encrusting to massive 10.94 - 14.16 monocentric polygonal and irregular seven to 11
Favites cf. pentagona tenuis encrusting to massive 6.07 - 10.35 one to three centers irregular six to ?24
Favites sp. A massive 6.70 - 9.26 one to three centers round to elliptical six to 11
Favites sp. B massive 4.14 - 9.12 monocentric rounded and regular eight to 11

 

 

TABLE 6. Comparison of taxonomic differences between morphospecies within genus Goniopora.

Morphospecies Colony shape Branch diameter Average corallite
width (mm)
Corallite outline Paliform lobes
Goniopora cf. palmensis branching 8.55 - 19.67 2.21 - 3.66 mostly round prominent
Goniopora cf. planulata branching to columnar 14.09 - 23.88 2.73 - 4.14 mostly round or irregular moderate
Goniopora cf. tenuidens massive NA 3.87 - 7.80 mostly round weak to moderate

 

 

TABLE 7. Checklist of described material from Malaysia and the Philippines and the formation in which they were found. Numbers represent number of museum lots. Geologic formation abbreviations: CF - Calagasan Formation, BLF - Butong Limestone Formation, TBL - Trankalan/Binaguiohan Limestone, ML - Melinau Limestone, SL - Subis Limestone.

Taxon CF BLF TBL ML SL
Acanthastrea cf. echinata 3 1 0 1 0
Acanthastrea sp. A 2 0 0 0 0
Acropora sp. A 1 7 0 0 0
Acropora sp. B 5 5 0 0 0
Actinastrea cf. minutissima 38 24 0 0 0
Alveopora cf. fenestrata 0 0 0 2 0
Astrea sp. A 2 0 0 0 0
Astrea sp. B 0 1 0 0 0
Astrea sp. C 0 0 0 0 2
Astreopora cf. digitata 0 0 0 0 9
Astreopora cf. expansa 0 1 0 0 0
Blastomussa cf. simplicitexta 0 0 1 0 0
Coelastrea sp. A 0 4 0 0 0
Cyphastrea cf. serailia 4 9 0 0 0
Cyphastrea sp. A 1 0 0 0 0
Dictyaraea cf. anomala 0 1 0 0 0
Dictyaraea cf. micrantha 1 4 0 0 0
Dipsastraea cf. speciosa 3 2 2 0 23
Dipsastraea sp. A 4 0 0 0 0
Dipsastraea sp. B 0 1 0 0 0
Favites cf. chinensis 6 1 0 0 0
Favites cf. pentagona tenuis 1 0 0 0 0
Favites sp. A 5 0 0 0 0
Favites sp. B 2 1 0 0 0
Favites spp. 0 0 0 7 14
Fungia spp. 3 0 0 1 0
Galaxea sp. A 3 0 0 0 2
Gardineroseris cf. planulata 0 1 0 0 0
Goniastrea cf. stelligera 1 9 0 0 0
Goniopora cf. palmensis 2 7 0 0 0
Goniopora cf. planulata 5 8 0 0 0
Goniopora cf. tenuidens 1 0 0 0 0
Hydnophora cf. microconos 11 1 0 15 14
Leptastrea cf. transversa 11 1 0 0 0
Leptastrea sp. A 4 0 0 0 0
Leptoria cf. phrygia 0 1 0 7 2
Leptoseris sp. A 0 1 0 0 0
Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii 4 0 0 0 0
Pachyseris spp. 1 58 0 0 0
Paramontastraea sp. A 0 0 0 3 0
Pavona cf. clavus 1 0 0 0 2
Pavona cf. venosa 0 7 0 0 0
Platygyra cf. lamellina 25 1 2 0 1
Porites sp. A 0 0 1 0 0
Porites spp. 1 4 2 0 6
Stylophora cf. pistillata 4 13 0 0 0
Stylophora spp. 1 7 0 1 0
Trachyphyllia cf. constricta 5 0 0 0 0
Trochocyathus cf. schmidti 1 1 0 0 0

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