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FIGURE 1. Map of Brazil, showing the location of the Prestosuchus chiniquensis -bearing site as indicated by von Huene (1938) within the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Map modified from Reichel et al. (2009).

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FIGURE 2. Chronostratigraphic column of the Santa Maria Supersequence, showing the Prestosuchus chiniquensis-bearing level. Modified from Horn et al. (2014).

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FIGURE 3. Life reconstruction (1) and preserved bones (2) of Prestosuchus chiniquensis. In red the holotype material and in white the referred material known. Drawn by Jorge Gonzales.

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FIGURE 4. Skull material of the lectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 28. 1-4, Right premaxilla (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 28) in 1, lateral; 2, medial; 3, anterior; and 4, dorsal views. Abbreviations: mxpp, maxillary palatal process; pmxpp, premaxillary palatal process; pmxin, premaxillary interdental plate; pmxt, premaxillary teeth; pmxt4, premaxillary tooth number 4; 2rpmxt, replacement premaxillary tooth. Scale bar equals 1 cm.

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FIGURE 5. Lower jaw (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 1) in 1, dorsal; 2, ventral; 3, lateral; and 4, medial views. 5, 2nd replacement tooth detail; 6, 11th replacement tooth. Abbreviations: an, Angular; d, dentary; de, denticles; dt3, dentary tooth 3; dt7, dentary tooth 7; fo, foramen; for, foramina; inp, interdental plate; mcf, meckelian foramen; pr, prearticular; 2rdt, replacement dentary 2 tooth; 11rdt, replacement dentary 11 tooth sa, surangular; sp, splenial. Scale bar equals 4 cm.

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FIGURE 6. Vertebral material of the lectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG AS XXV. 1-3, Anterior cervical vertebra (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 29) in 1, left lateral; 2, ventral; and 3, posterior views. 4-6, Middle cervical vertebra (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 30) in 4, anterior; 5, posterior; and 6, dorsal views. 7, Anterior dorsal vertebrae (SNSB-BSPG XXV 31) in left lateral view. 8-9, Anterior caudal vertebrae and chevrons (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 3b) in 8, left lateral; and 9, ventral views. Abbreviations: acd, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; al, accessory lamina; chc, chevrons contact; cpr, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; cr, cervical rib; dd, deep depression; di, diapophysis; dr, dorsal rib; hc, hemal canal; if, infradiapophyseal fossa; inf, infraprezygapophyseal fossa; infp, infraposzygapophyseal fossa; lld, lateral longitudinal depression; lf, lateral fossa; mb, medial bridge; nc, neural canal; pa, parapophysis; pad, paradiapophyseal lamina; pcd, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pcl, posterior centroapophyseal lamina; pd, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; pos, postzygapophysis; pr, prezygapophysis; prd, prezygodiapophyseal laminae; ps, postzygapophysis lamina; tp, transverse process; vd, ventral depression; vk, ventral keel. Arrows indicate the orientation. Scale bar equals 1 cm indicated in the figure.

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FIGURE 7. Pelvic elements of the paralectotype (1-5) and lectotype (6-8) of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG AS XXV. 1-5, Sacral vertebrae, sacral ribs, and right ilium (SNSB-BSPG XXV 7) in 1, right lateral; 2, dorsal; 3, ventral; 4, anterior; and 5, posterior views. 6-8, Left ilium and ischia (SNSB-BSPG XXV 34b/3) in 6, left lateral view; 7, Sacral centra and left ilium (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 3a) in lateroventral; 8, dorsomedial views. Abbreviations: dv, dorsal vertebra; iac, ischial acetabulum; isp, ischial peduncle; osn, opening for the spinal nerve; pdns, posterior dorsal neural spine; po, paramedian osteoderms; pop, postacetabular process; pp, pubic peduncle; ptp, postzygapophysis; 1sns, first sacral neural spine; 2sns, first sacral neural spine; st, spine table; 1cvc, first caudal vertebra; 1sr; first sacral rib; 2sr, second sacral rib, iob: ischial obturador blate lld: lateral longitudinal depression, tp: transverse process, 2 svs: second sacral centrum. Scale bar indicate in the figure.

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FIGURE 8. Dorsal and ventral ribs of the lectotype and dorsal osteoderm of the paralectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG AS XXV. 1-2, Gastralia (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 5a) in 1, general; 2, close-up views. 3, Dorsal ribs (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 9, 49) in external posterodorsal view. 4, right last presacral osteoderm (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 7) in external view. Abbreviations: ap, anterior point; c, capitulum; mc, medial contact; r, ridges; t, tuberculum. Scale bars equal 1 cm.

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FIGURE 9. Pectoral elements of the lectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG XXV 12. 1, Ventrolateral view of left scapula, coracoid, clavicle, and interclavicle; 2, lateral view; and 3, posterodorsal view. Abbreviations: cf, coracoid foramen; cl, clavicle; in, interclavicle; ld, lateral depression; oi, oval incision; pt, pathological tissue; rk, rounded keel; rt, rugose tubercle. Scale bars equal 4 cm.

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FIGURE 10. Humerus of the lectotype (1-6) of Prestosuchus chiniquensis. 1, proximal end of the left humerus (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 33) in posterior; 2, anterior; and 3, dorsal views. 4, distal end of the right humerus (SNSB-BSPG XXV 35) in anterior view. 5, proximal end of the right humerus (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 33) in anterior; and 6, posterior views. Abbreviations: dc, deltopectoral crest; ent, entepicondyle; hh, humeral head; it, internal tuber; tg, trochlear groove. Scale bars equal 1 cm.

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FIGURE 11. Pelvic elements of the lectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG XXV. 1, distal ends of right and 2, left pubis (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 6) in anteromedial view; 3-5, articulated ischia (SNSB-BSPG XXV 3) in 3, dorsal; 4, lateral; and 5, ventral views. Abbreviations: dlc, dorsolateral crest; iac, acetabular contribution; iob, ischial obturator blade; is, interischial suture; kde, knob-like distal end; lm, lamina of bone; vi, ventral incision. Scale bars equal 3 cm.

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FIGURE 12. Hind limb bones of the lectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG AS XXV. 1-6, left femur (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 10) in 1, anterior; 2, posterior; 3, lateral; 4, medial; 5, proximal, and 6, distal views. 7, articulated left tibia, fibula, and proximal tarsals in anteromedial view. 8-12, left tibia (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 11a) in 8, medial; 9, lateral; 10, posterior; 11, proximal; and 12, distal views. 13-18, left fibula (SNSB-BSPG AS XXV 11b) in 13, proximal; 14, distal; 15, lateral; 16, medial; 17, posterior; and 18, anterior views. Abbreviations: dd, deep depression; f, popliteal fossa; fc, fibular condyle; g, groove; gt, great trochanter; ilt, iliofibularis trochanter; ip; incompletely preserved surface; kn, knob; ld, longitudinal depression; lud, lunate depression; plr, posterolateral ridge; pmt, posteromedial tuber; rd, rectangular depression; rt, rugose tubercle; s, scars; t, tubercle; td, triangular depression; tc, tibial condyle; tic, tibial contact; tfc, tibiofibular crest; 4t, fourth trochanter. Scale bars are indicated in the figure.

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FIGURE 13. Foot bones of the lectotype of Prestosuchus chiniquensis SNSB-BSPG XXV. 1-6, left proximal tarsals (SNSB-BSPG XXV 11c) in 1, dorsal; 2, anterior; 3, ventral; 4, posterior; 5, lateral; and 6, posteroventral views. 7-8, left distal tarsal four, metatarsals, and phalanges of the five digits in articulation (SNSB-BSPG XXV 11e) in 7, dorsal; and 8, ventral views. Abbreviations: ap, anterior pit; ct, calcaneal tuber; ddd, dorsal distal depression; dp, deep pit; dt3, distal tarsal three; dt4, distal tarsal four; ff, fibular facet; lf, lateral fossae; md, median depression; p, pit; tde, tibial distal end; I-V, digits 1 to 5. Scale bars indicate in the figure.

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FIGURE 14. Reduced consensus tree of the 22815 most parsimonious trees of 1425 steps; bootstrap values over 50% indicated above branches and Bremer support indicated below branches. Orange: Prestosuchidae, green: Rauisuchidae, purple: Poposauroidea. Prestosuchus chiniquensis type series indicated in bold. Position of unstable taxa indicated with coloured circles.

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