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TABLE 1. Brief characteristics of the fossil plant assemblages from Europe selected for testing Drudge 1 and Drudge 2 (hereafter “test set”). The selected sites cover the period late Eocene to late Pliocene.

Studied floras Staré Sedlo, Czech Republic Seifhennersdorf, Germany Wackersdorf, Germany Parschlug, Austria Sośnica, Poland Vonšov Mb. (Vildštejn Fm.–Pluto Clay), Czech Republic
GPS coordinates N 50° 10' 54.39", E 12° 43' 11.37" N 50° 56' 7.02", E 14° 36' 26.99" N 49° 18' 50.96", E 12° 10' 39.46" N 47°28'50.7", E 15°17'15.3" N 51°01'58.7" E16°47'00.3" N 50° 9' 19.74", E 12° 22' 43.99"
References Knobloch et al. (1996), Teodoridis et al. (2012) Walther and Kvaček (2007) Knobloch and Kvaček (1976), Gregor (1978), Günther and Gregor (1993) Kovar-Eder et al. (2004) Goeppert(1855), Stachurska et al. (1973), Walther and Zastawniak (1991), Zastawniak and Walther (1998), Collinson et al. (2001), Kohlman-Adamska et al. (2004); Manchester and Zastawniak (2007) Stuchlik (1982), Bůžek et al. (1985), Teodoridis et al. (2017)
Dating Series late Eocene early Oligocene early Miocene early/middle Miocene late Miocene late Pliocene
Age/Stage Priabonian Rupelian Burdigalian (Karpatian) uppermost Burdigalian/lowermost Langhian (Karpatian/early Badenian) Tortonian- Messinian Piacenzian (Reuverian)
Ma ? 30.44 ± 1.25 14.5 - 17.3 ? ? ? 2.6-4.5
Fossil record leaves, pollen (morphotaxa) leaves leaves, fruits leaves leaves, fruits, pollen leaves, fruits, pollen

 

 

TABLE 2. Results of applying Drudge 1 and 2 on the test set. Listed are the five best-fitted results for every site (hereafter “proxy set”).

Site/results  Drudge 1
Staré Sedlo Seifhennersdorf Wackersdorf Parschlug Sośnica Vonšov Mb. (Vildštejn Fm. –Pluto Clay)
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Results - IPR Similarity 1 Japan 08 3.98 China 84 4.91 Japan 04 2.24 G043 2.22 F130 2.04 China 04 1.66
2 D032 5.31 F166 4.95 F163 3.63 F098 2.55 Japan 01 2.72 F123 4.61
3 China 89 5.36 F169 5.15 H001 3.99 K022 2.72 F054 3.30 China 62 4.79
4 C045 6.39 China 38 5.20 China 35 5.05 G074 3.38 G038 3.89 China 80 4.83
5 Japan 07 7.23 China 28 7.24 China 37 5.05 K015 3.97 F065 4.52 China 57 4.88
Results - Taxonomic Similarity 1 China 34 5.71% Japan 05 41.18% Japan 06 31.01% China 03 34.38% Japan 06 45.26% China 03 40.00%
2 China 38 5.00% China 57 41.18% China 03 30.38% China 68 32.81% China 68 44.21% Japan 05 29.00%
3 China 13 5.00% China 67 41.18% Japan 05 29.11% China 81 31.25% Japan 01 42.11% Japan 06 28.00%
4 China 14 5.00% China 60 39.71% China 57 27.85% Japan 05 29.69% China 60 41.05% China 68 28.00%
5 Japan 01 5.00% China 61 39.71% China 60 27.85% Japan 06 29.69% China 81 40.00% China 81 27.00%
Results - Mix 1 China 34 94.80 China 67 60.27 China 03 72.17 China 03 76.88 Japan 01 57.96 China 03 63.49
2 China 36 96.87 China 56 65.00 China 67 78.66 China 13 79.23 Japan 06 59.56 Japan 05 72.32
3 China 89 97.29 China 57 66.67 China 36 80.99 D052 79.28 China 60 60.98 Japan 06 74.59
4 China 30 97.56 China 60 67.90 China 17 82.30 G072 80.22 China 68 62.38 China 61 75.26
5 China 32 97.70 China 03 68.31 China 35 83.07 Japan 01 80.81 China 03 64.69 China 68 75.68
Site/results Drudge 2
Staré Sedlo Seifhennersdorf Wackersdorf Parschlug Sośnica Vonšov Mb. (Vildštejn Fm. –Pluto Clay)
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomic Similarity /Total difference
Modern vegetation Mathematical difference/
Taxonomical Similarity /Total difference
Results - IPR Similarity 1 China 89 12.77 China 38 4.94 China 38 5.46 G032 17.06 F075 10.13 F054 9.04
2 China 30 12.82 China 59 9.67 Japan 04 6.06 G071 21.49 F171 10.56 G055 9.25
3 China 36 17.36 China 67 9.97 China 35 7.38 D064 22.50 China 87 12.11 G038 9.54
4 China 17 17.47 Japan 04 10.49 China 37 7.38 D042 24.20 G018 14.38 F069 9.56
5 China 34 17.50 China 35 12.93 China 36 10.14 G030 24.31 G017 14.45 C037 9.69
Results - Taxonomic Similarity 1 China 34 5.71% Japan 05 41.18% Japan 06 31.01% China 03 34.38% Japan 06 45.26% China 03 40.00%
2 China 38 5.00% China 57 41.18% China 03 30.38% China 68 32.81% China 68 44.21% Japan 05 29.00%
3 China 13 5.00% China 67 41.18% Japan 05 29.11% China 81 31.25% Japan 01 42.11% Japan 06 28.00%
4 China 14 5.00% China 60 39.71% China 57 27.85% Japan 05 29.69% China 60 41.05% China 68 28.00%
5 Japan 01 5.00% China 61 39.71% China 60 27.85% Japan 06 29.69% China 81 40.00% China 81 27.00%
Results - Mix 1 China 34 95.90 China 67 59.66 China 67 77.67 China 68 81.19 China 68 60.36 China 03 62.22
2 China 30 96.57 China 57 64.66 China 60 80.84 China 03 81.27 China 60 63.26 China 68 75.02
3 China 38 97.68 China 56 65.34 China 57 80.87 China 38 81.57 Japan 06 63.67 China 81 75.47
4 China 36 97.98 China 60 65.99 China 36 81.02 China 81 82.47 China 81 63.74 F033 76.38
5 China 89 97.98 China 58 67.97 China 03 82.79 China 60 82.54 China 71 64.40 China 71 79.36

 

 

TABLE 3. Synthesis of the results derived by applying Drudge 1 and 2. Small-scaled vegetation units are summarised to higher-order entities, which are arranged according to major vegetation types. Counts reflect the occurrences of the modern vegetation units in the proxy sets for IPR Similarity, Taxonomic Similarity (TS), and Results - Mix (Table 2). TS is counted only once.

ID major vegetation types Staré Sedlo Seifhennersdorf Wackersdorf Parschlug Sośnica Vonšov Mb. (Vildštejn Fm. - Pluto Clay)
China 17, 28, 30-38 Broad-leaved evergreen forest, China 14 4 10 1    
Japan 04, 07, 08 Broad-leaved evergreen forest, Honshu, Japan 2 1 2      
China 56-61 Mixed mesophytic forest of the Lower Yangtze Province   11 4 1 3 2
China 03 Mt. Emei evergreen or deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest zone   1 3 3 1 3
China 04, 62-67 Broad-leaved deciduous forest, Upper Yangtze Province and Mt. Emei   4 2     2
China 68-79 Broad-leaved deciduous forests of the Northern and Northeastern Provinces       2 4 4
Japan 01-03,05 Broad-leaved deciduous forests Shirakami Sanchi, and Mt. Fuji 1 1 1 2 3 2
D D Mesophytic and hygromesophytic coniferous and mixed broad-leaved-coniferous forests 1     3    
F F Mesophytic broadleaved deciduous and mixed broad-leaved/conifer forests   2 1 1 5 4
G G Thermophilous mixed deciduous broadleaved forests       6 3 2
H H Hygrophilous thermophytic mixed deciduous broadleaved forests     1      
K K Xerophytic coniferous forests, coniferous woodland and scrub       2    
China 13, 14 Meili Snow Mt. - Sclerophyllous and broad-leaved forest zone (2580-3650 m alt) 2     1    
China 80-89 Montane coniferous forests, China, Taiwan  4  1   2 3 3
Japan 06 Mt. Fuji-Upper montane and subalpine coniferous belt, 1800-2500 m, Vaccinium-Picea region     1 1 3 2
C C Subarctic, boreal and nemoral-montane open woodlands as well as subalpine and oro-Mediterranean vegetation 1         1

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