TABLE 1. Settings used in each simulation scheme. Domain dimension scalars shown are functions of model diameter (in this case vertical distance from the base of the aperture the farthest point of the venter). Dimensions are shown in the form: Model distance from inlet X model distance from walls X model distance from outlet. A visual example of this is shown in Figure 3. Turbulence models used include the Realizable k-ε and the Shear Stress Transport (SST)k-ω models both of which are Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes formulations. Run times quoted are the average time taken for the workstation (see methods) to run one full set of iterations over an ammonoid model and return a single drag value for a given flow velocity.

Scheme # Domain Dimension Scalars (leading X sides X trailing) Meshing Method Turbulence model Number of Elements
1 3 X 5 X 10 Tetrahedraa Realizable k-ε  ~3 to 4 million 
2 3 X 5 X 10 ANSYS Assembly SST k-ω 300-600 thousand
3 6 X 10 X 30 Polyhedral SST k-ω ~500 thousand to 1.5 million
4 6 X 15 X 50 Tetrahedral SST k-ω ~6-8 million

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