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Sorex bifidus n. sp. and the rich insectivore mammal fauna (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) from the Early Pleistocene of Żabia Cave in Poland

Barbara Rzebik-Kowalska

Plain Language Abstract

The paper describes a new species (Sorex bifidus n. sp.) and 12 other species of insectivore mammals [order Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus sp. and Soricomorpha: Talpa minor Freudenberg, 1914, T. europaea Linnaeus, 1758, Paenelimnoecus pannonicus Baudelot, 1972, Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766, S. runtonensis Hinton, 1911, S. (Drepanosorex) praearaneus Kormos, 1934, S. (D). margaritodon Kormos, 1930, Asoriculus gibberodon (Petényi, 1864), Neomys newtoni Hinton, 1911, Petenyia hungarica Kormos, 1934 and Beremendia fissidens (Petényi, 1864)] from one of the few middle Early Pleistocene localities of Żabia Cave situated in Southern Poland. The locality also includes slugs, amphibians, reptiles, few birds and other mammals such as bats, lagomorphs, rodents, carnivores, cervids and bovids.

The assemblage of Żabia Cave is very valuable because it is one of the few so rich in animal and insectivore remains in Poland and Europe. The number of remains and individuals equals 6708 and 1720, respectively. They were found in seven layers. The most numerous (11 species) and diverse assemblage (one hedgehog, two moles and eight shrews) was collected in layers 15 and 21 representing periods of cooling and increased humidity. At that time a zone of boreal coniferous and mixed forest and steppe area came into existence in Europe. A faunal turnover caused by the evolution and migration of species started as a result of cooling, which continued in the end of the Early Pleistocene and the Middle Pleistocene. It also concerned the insectivore mammals and especially shrews and the Żabia Cave provides evidence for those processes.

The progressive climatic deterioration since the beginning of the Pleistocene resulted in extinction or decreased ranges of numerous old Miocene and Pliocene Soricidae taxa. On the other hand the Recent Sorex, the most diverse genus of the Soricinae, has gradually adapted to cooler climate and in course of geological time became more numerous and diversified. It occupied the empty ecological niches left by extinct Pliocene forms. In the Pliocene localities of Poland it made only 15-30% of shrew assemblages while in younger Żabia Cave 50% and in Kozi Grzbiet (Poland), locality dated to the Early/Middle Pleistocene, 70% of all shrew species.

The diversified insectivore mammal assemblage of Żabia Cave shows that a mosaic landscape – forests, open habitat patches and water bodies were present in the vicinity of the studied cave. It is unique for the reconstruction of the middle Early Pleistocene history of fauna in this part of Europe.

Polski Abstrakt

Trzynaście gatunków ssaków owadożernych, wśród nich nowy gatunek Sorex bifidus n. sp., zostało opisanych z jaskini Żabiej, jednego z nielicznych polskich stanowisk datowanych na środkową część wczesnego plejstocenu. Są to: Erinaceus sp. (Erinaceidae), Talpa minor and T. europaea (Talpidae), Paenelimnoecus pannonicus, Sorex minutus, S. runtonensis, S. (Drepanosorex) praearaneus, S. (D.) margaritodon, Asoriculus gibberodon, Neomys newtoni, Petenyia hungarica and Beremendoia fissidens (Soricidae). W pracy można znaleźć pomiary okazów należących do poszczególnych gatunków, ich pozycję systematyczną, wymagania paleośrodowiskowe i ilustracje. Obecne w materiale cztery gatunki Sorex są wskaźnikami środowiska leśnego i wilgotnego, Sorex runtonensis był prawdopodobnie wskaźnikiem bardziej otwartego i suchego biotopu, jeż, Erinaceus sp., wskaźnikiem lasów, zarośli i terenów otwartych, a rzęsorek, Neomys newtoni, związany był ze zbiornikami wodnymi. To pokazuje, że w omawianym okresie środowisko w sąsiedztwie jaskini miało charakter mozaikowy złożony z terenów zalesionych, śródleśnych polan i cieków wodnych. W pracy pokazano również jak w Europie, w czasie pliocenu i wczesnego plejstocenu ubożały zespoły ryjówek spowodowane wymieraniem starych plioceńskich form i zastępowaniem ich licznymi gatunkami z rodzaju Sorex.

Translator: author

Resumen en Español

Sorex bifidus n. sp. y la rica fauna de mamíferos insectívoros (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) del Pleistoceno temprano de la cueva Żabia (Polonia)

En este artículo se describen trece especies de mamíferos insectívoros, entre ellas el nuevo taxón
Sorex bifidus n. sp. y otras doce procedentes de la cueva Żabia, una de las pocas localidades del Pleistoceno temprano medio de Polonia. Esas especies son: Erinaceus sp. (Erinaceidae), Talpa minor y T. europaea (Talpidae), Paenelimnoecus pannonicus, Sorex minutus, S. runtonensis, S. (Drepanosorex) praearaneus, S. (D.) margaritodon, Asoriculus gibberodon, Neomys newtoni, Petenyia hungarica y Beremendoia fissidens (Soricidae). Se proporcionan medidas, posiciones sistemáticas, requerimientos paleoecológicos e ilustraciones. Las cuatro especies de Sorex indican un paleoambiente boscoso húmedo. La abundancia de topos está relacionada también con condiciones relativamente húmedas y áreas más o menos abiertas con suelos blandos. Por otra parte, S. runtonensis es, probablemente, indicador de un biotopo árido y relativamente abierto, y el erizo, Erinaceus sp., de bosque, matorral y áreas abiertas. Neomys newtoni se relaciona con cuerpos de agua en terreno abierto. Todo ello sugiere un paisaje en mosaico, con zonas de bosque, hábitats abiertos y cuerpos de agua, en las cercanías de la cueva estudiada. Se pone de manifiesto el empobrecimiento de la fauna europea de musarañas durante el Plioceno tardío y el Pleistoceno temprano ocasionado por la extinción de los taxones del Plioceno y la aparición de numerosas especies del género Sorex.

Palaras clave: nueva especie; mamíferos insectívoros fósiles; Pleistoceno

Traducción: Miguel Company

Résumé en Français

Sorex bifidus n. sp. et la riche faune de mammifères insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) du Pléistocène inferieur de la grotte Żabia en Pologne

Treize espèces de mammifères insectivores, dont un nouveau taxon Sorex bifidus n. sp. et douze autres sont décrits provenant d'une des rares localités du milieux de Pléistocène inférieur de Pologne, la grotte Żabia. Ils sont : Erinaceus sp. (Erinaceidae), Talpa minor and T. europaea (Talpidae), Paenelimnoecus pannonicus, Sorex minutus, S. runtonensis, S. (Drepanosorex) praearaneus, S. (D.) margaritodon, Asoriculus gibberodon, Neomys newtoni, Petenyia hungarica et Beremendoia fissidens (Soricidae). Les mesures, les positions systématiques, les préférences paléoécologiques et les illustrations sont données. Quatre espèces de Sorex indiquent un paléoenvironnement sylvain humide. L'abondance des taupes est aussi liée à des conditions relativement humides et des zones plus ou moins ouvertes avec une terre meuble. D'un autre côté, S. runtonensis est probablement un indicateur de biotope ouvert et aride, et le hérisson, Erinaceus sp., de forêts, arbustes et zones ouvertes. Neomys newtoni est connecté à des masses d'eau ouvertes. Cela montre une mosaïque de paysages forestiers, de parcelles ouvertes et de masses d'eau dans le voisinage de la grotte étudiée. L'appauvrissement de la faune de musaraignes d'Europe au cours de Pliocène supérieur et du Pléistocène inférieur, causé par l'extinction des taxa pliocènes et l'apparition de plus nombreuses espèces du genre Sorex, est également représenté.

Most Clés : nouvelle espèce ; mammifères insectivores fossiles ; Pléistocène

Translator: Olivier Maridet

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Sorex bifidus n. sp.und die vielfältige Insektivorenfauna (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Mammalia) aus dem frühen Pleistozän der Żabia Höhle von Polen

Es werden dreizehn Arten von insektivoren Säugetieren, unter diesen das neue Taxon Sorex bifidus n. sp. und zwölf andere aus einer der neuen mittel-bis frühpleistozänen Fundstellen von Polen, Żabia Cave, beschrieben. Diese sind: Erinaceus sp. (Erinaceidae), Talpa minor und T. europaea (Talpidae), Paenelimnoecus pannonicus, Sorex minutus, S. runtonensis, S. (Drepanosorex) praearaneus, S. (D.) margaritodon, Asoriculus gibberodon, Neomys newtoni, Petenyia hungarica und Beremendoia fissidens (Soricidae). Messungen, systematische Positionen, paläoökologische Bedingungen und Illustrationen werden gegeben. Die vier Arten von Sorex weisen auf ein humides Waldklima hin. Das Vorhandensein von Maulwürfen steht ebenfalls mit relativ humiden Konditionen und mehr oder weniger offenen Gebieten mit weichen Böden in Verbindung. Auf der anderen Seite ist S. runtonensis möglicherweise ein Indikator für aride und relativ offene Biotope und der Igel Erinaceus sp. für Wald, Büsche und offene Gebiete. Neomys newtoni ist mit offenen Wasserkörpern assoziiert. Dies deutet auf eine Mosaiklandschaft hin – Wald, offene Habitate und Wasserkörper in der Nähe der untersuchten Höhle. Das Verarmen der europäischen Spitzmäuse während des späten Pliozän und frühen Pleistozän, ausgelöst durch das Aussterben der pliozänen Taxa, und das Auftreten zahlreicher Arten der Gattung Sorex werden präsentiert.

SCHLÜSSENWÖRTER: neue Art; fossile insektivore Säugetiere; Pleistozän

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

376 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
kowalskaInstitute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals
Polish Academy of Sciences
Sławkowska 17
31-016 Kraków
Poland

Barbara Rzebik-Kowalska is a professor in the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków (Poland). She graduated from the Jagiellonian University (Kraków) and received her PhD on the ground of the thesis "Studies on the diet of the carnivores in Poland" in 1973. She has published numerous papers and books concerning recent and fossil (Miocene – Quaternary) mammals (especially insectivore mammals) of Europe, as well as of the Middle and Far East, the Greater Antilles, and of North Africa. For five years (1979-1983) she worked with her husband, Kazimierz Kowalski, in Algeria where they lectured and collected extensive materials of mammals publishing the book Mammals of Algeria in 1991.

 

TABLE 1. Erinaceus sp. (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/1, Wrocław –No. ZPALUWr/JZ/I/Esp).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth

(I3, C, P2

and P4-M3)

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth (c, p2 and p4-m3)

Total

Minimum number of individuals MNI

15

39

47

86

9

17

2

1

3

2

21

0

1

1

1

Total

41

49

90

12

 TABLE 2. Dimensions(in mm) of upper teeth of Erinaceus species of body size similar to specimens from Żabia Cave.

 
 

 

Erinaceus sp.

 

 

Żabia Cave

Erinaceus roumanicus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poland

Recent

Erinaceus praeglacialis

Brunner, 1933*

Windloch

E. cf. praeglacialis

Rabeder 1972**

Hundsheim

Germany

Early and Middle Pleistocene

Erinaceus davidi

 

Jammot, 1973

La Fage

 

 

 

 

France

Middle Pleistocene

 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min.-Max.

N

Min.-Max.

N

L

I3

W

-

 

-

2.68

 

1.96

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

2.10

 

1.88

2.37

 

1.96

2.59

 

2.02

4

 

4

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

0

 

0

L

C

W

-

 

-

2.20

 

1.52

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

2.30

 

1.48

2.53

 

1.61

3.04

 

1.74

9

 

9

0.21

 

0.09

8.30

 

5.59

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

0

 

0

L

P2

W

-

 

-

2.38

 

1.75

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

-

2.38

 

1.77

2.58

 

191

3.06

 

2.06

6

 

6

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

0

 

0

P3 L

-

2.30

-

1

-

-

2.35

2.45

2.68

9

0.10

4.08

2.57*

2.50**

1

1

-

0

P4 L

3.37

3.56

3.79

4

-

-

3.66

4.09

4.47

11

0.24

5.87

4.50*

4.20-4.30**

1

3

4.50-5.20

3

L

M1

W

4.21

 

4.85

4.85

 

5.40

5.33

 

5.92

12

 

12

0.23

 

0.33

4.74

 

6.11

4.88

 

5.37

5.28

 

5.67

5.55

 

6.12

12

 

12

0.22

 

0.23

4.17

 

4.07

5.00-5.50**

 

5.80-6.50**

2

 

3

4.90-5.40

 

5.50-6.00

7

 

7

L

M2

W

3.64

 

4.20

3.94

 

4.75

4.29

 

5.31

15

 

14

0.18

 

0.33

4.57

 

6.95

3.95

 

5.01

4.26

 

5.32

4.59

 

5.72

12

 

12

0.21

 

0.23

4.93

 

4.32

4.60**

 

4.20**

1

 

1

4.30-5.30

 

4.60-6.10

5

 

5

L

M3

W

1.68

 

3.12

1.74

 

3.29

1.82

 

3.46

6

 

6

-

 

-

-

 

-

1.65

 

3.25

1.83

 

3.58

2.16

 

3.87

11

 

11

0.15

 

0.16

8.20

 

4.47

2.20**

 

4.00**

1

 

1

-

 

-

0

 

0

 TABLE 3. Dimensions (in mm) of the mandible and lower teeth of Erinaceus species of body size similar to specimens from Żabia Cave.

 
 

 

Erinaceus sp.

 

Żabia Cave

 

Erinaceus. roumanicus

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poland

Recent

Erinaceus praeglacialis

Brunner, 1933*

Windloch

E. cf. praeglacialis

Rabeder 1972**

Hundsheim

Germany

Early and Middle Pleistocene

Erinaceus davidi

 

Jammot, 1973

La Fage

 

 

 

 

France

Middle Pleistocene

 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min.-Max.

N

Min.-Max.

N

L

c

W

2.74

 

1.89

2.76

 

1.93

2.79

 

1.97

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

2.18

 

1.99

2.74

 

2.08

3.04

 

2.22

7

 

7

0.28

 

0.11

10.22

 

5.29

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

0

 

0

L

p2

W

-

 

-

2.08

 

1.82

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

2.16

 

1.65

2.38

 

2.01

2.58

 

2.15

7

 

7

0.16

 

0.17

6.72

 

8.46

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

0

 

0

L

p4

W

3.07

 

1.99

3.29

 

2.18

3.71

 

2.33

7

 

7

0.22

 

0.12

6.69

 

5.50

3.14

 

1.95

3.54

 

2.40

4.00

 

2.63

11

 

11

0.30

 

0.19

8.47

 

7.29

3.40-3.70**

 

2.50-2.80**

7

 

7

-

 

-

0

 

0

L

m1

W

4.66

 

2.76

5.15

 

3.17

5.55

 

3.45

10

 

11

0.28

 

0.19

5.44

 

5.99

5.25

 

3.32

5.70

 

3.60

6.33

 

3.81

11

 

11

0.28

 

0.16

4.91

 

4.44

5.62*

 

3.80*

1

 

1

6.20

 

4.10

1

 

1

L

m3

W

 

L

m2

W

4.25

 

2.56

11

 

11

0.22

 

0.21

4.78

 

7.27

4.70

 

2.94

5.02

 

3.15

5.31

 

3.40

11

 

11

0.21

 

0.16

4.18

 

5.08

5.30*

4.50-5.10**

3.40*

3.50-3.60**

1

2

1

2

5.40

 

3.40-3.60

1

 

3

 TABLE 4. Dimensions (in mm) of the M3 in Pleistocene and recent species of the genus Erinaceus in Europe.

 
 

 

Erinaceus sp.

 

Żabia Cave

 

Erinaceus roumanicus

 

Poland

 

Erinaceus europaeus

 

?Poland

Sulimski 1962

 

Erinaceus samsonowiczi

Węże 1

Poland

Sulimski 1962

 

Erinaceus praeglacialis

Hundsheim Germany

Rabeder 1972

L

M3

W

1.68-1.82

n=6

3.12-3.46

1.65-2.16

n=11

3.25-3.87

2.00

n=1

3.50

1.60-1.80

n-6

2.40-2.70

2.20

n=1

4.00

 TABLE 5. Talpa minor (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/2 , Wrocław – No. ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Tm).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth

(C, and P4-M3)

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth (p1-m3)

Number of

humeri

Total

Minimum number of individuals

MNI

10

-

-

10

10

6

12

-

-

3

3

2

13

-

-

1

1

1

15

24

113

313

450

158

17

3

29

99

131

53

21

5

13

6

24

4

 TABLE 6. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Talpa minor from Żabia Cave.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

P4

W

-

 

-

1.51

 

0.80

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

M1

W

2.26

 

1.19

2.36

 

1.25

2.52

 

1.30

7

 

7

0.10

 

0.04

4.24

 

3.20

L

M2

W

1.78

 

1.94

1.87

 

2.09

2.08

 

2.19

10

 

10

0.12

 

0.09

6.42

 

4.31

L

M3

W

1.50

 

1.43

1.67

 

1.47

1.73

 

1.54

6

 

6

0.08

 

0.05

4.79

 

3.40

 TABLE 7.Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Talpa minor from Żabia Cave.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

p1

W

1.08

 

0.51

1.09

 

0.51

1.11

 

0.52

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

-

L

p4

W

1.05

 

0.52

1.20

 

0.56

1.28

 

0.59

5

 

5

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

m1

W

1.66

 

0.92

1.75

 

0.98

1.84

 

1.10

22

 

22

0.05

 

0.05

2.86

 

5.10

L

m2

W

2.01

 

1.05

2.18

 

1.16

2.29

 

1.30

30

 

29

0.07

 

0.07

3.21

 

6.03

L

m3

W

1.66

 

0.91

1.86

 

0.98

2.07

 

1.10

26

 

27

0.09

 

0.06

4.84

 

6.12

 

m1-m3 L

 

5.60

 

5.60

 

5.61

 

2

 

-

 

-

H of mandible below p2

 

1.30

 

1.39

 

1.55

 

5

 

-

 

-

H of mandible below m1

 

1.48

 

1.69

 

2.00

 

24

 

0.12

 

7.10

H of mandible below m2

 

1.61

 

1.81

 

2.20

 

24

 

0.17

 

9.39

 TABLE 8. Dimensions (in mm) of humerus of Talpa minor from Żabia Cave.

 
 

MIN.

X

MAX.

N

sd

cv

 

L (max.)

 

 

Humerus W (max.)

 

 

DW

 

10.21

 

11.33

 

12.75

 

67

 

0.68

 

6.00

 

6,55

 

8.00

 

9.04

 

63

 

0.50

 

6.26

 

2.50

 

2.93

 

3.26

 

99

 

0.18

 

6.14

 

 TABLE 9. Talpa europaea (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/3, Wrocław – ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Te).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth

(I3, C, P2

and P4-M3)

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth (p1-m3)

Number of humeri

Total

Minimum number of individuals

MNI

10

-

-

8

8

5

12

-

-

4

4

4

13

-

-

3

3

3

15

205

389

636

1230

337

17

15

80

176

271

90

21

28

31

19

78

12

Total

248

500

846

1594

451

 

 TABLE 10. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Talpa europaea from Europe and Żabia Cave.

 
 

 

Żabia Cave

Poland

Talpa europaea

 

Netherlands, Germany, Spain

 

Recent

van Cleef-Roders and van den Hoek Ostende 2001

 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Range

N

L

P4

W

1.55

 

0.90

1.63

 

0.97

1.72

 

1.10

14

 

14

0.06

 

0.06

3.68

 

7.22

1.59-2.02

 

0.90-1.26

54

 

54

L

M1

W

2.46

 

1.34

2.69

 

1.45

2.96

 

1.58

28

 

28

0.11

 

0.07

4.09

 

4.83

2.31-3.18

 

1.36-1.73

53

 

53

L

M2

W

2.00

 

2.22

2.22

 

2.48

2.40

 

2.81

29

 

29

0.09

 

0.13

4.05

 

5.24

2.10-2.53

 

2.27-2.80

45

 

45

L

M3

W

1.71

 

1.67

1.72

 

1.74

1.75

 

1.83

4

 

4

-

 

-

-

 

-

1.27-1.52

 

1.76-2.13

32

 

32

 

 TABLE 11. Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Talpa europaea from Europe and Żabia Cave.

 
 

 

Żabia Cave

Poland

Talpa europaea

 

Netherlands, Germany, Spain

Recent

van Cleef-Roders and van den Hoek Ostende 2001

 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

.Range

N

L

p1

W

1.05

 

0.48

1.23

 

0.53

1.33

 

0.56

8

 

8

0.08

 

0.02

6.50

 

3.77

 

-

 

0

L

p2

W

0.83

 

0.40

0.87

 

0.42

0.92

 

0.45

3

 

3

-

 

-

-

 

-

 

-

 

0

L

p3

W

0.86

 

0.37

0.99

 

0.44

1.14

 

0.48

10

 

10

0.08

 

0.03

8.08

 

6.82

 

-

 

0

L

p4

W

1.28

 

0.57

1.38

 

0.64

1.47

 

0.69

21

 

21

0.06

 

0.03

4.35

 

4.69

1.16-1.48

 

0.55-0.75

38

 

38

L

m1

W

1.86

 

0.95

2.02

 

1.11

2.19

 

1.23

50

 

51

0.15

 

0.07

7.43

 

6.31

2.09-2.45

 

1.21-1.48

38

 

38

L

m2

W

2.30

 

1.20

2.47

 

1.31

2.67

 

1.40

39

 

41

0.09

 

0.06

3.64

 

4.58

2.40-2.71

 

1.12-1.45

42

 

42

L

m3

W

1.90

 

0.97

2.10

 

1.10

2.25

 

1.20

20

 

20

0.09

 

0.06

4.29

 

5.45

1.92-2.21

 

0.99-1.31

34

 

34

 

m1-m3 L

 

5.87

 

6.05

 

6.24

 

2

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

0

H of mandible below p2

 

1.60

 

1.71

 

1.88

 

7

 

0.10

 

5.85

 

-

 

0

H of mandible below m1

 

1.85

 

2.00

 

2.2 0

 

17

 

0.11

 

5.50

 

-

 

0

H of mandible below m2

 

1.97

 

2.16

 

2.40

 

17

 

0.12

 

5.55

 

-

 

0

 TABLE 12. Dimensions (in mm) of humerus of recent Talpa europaea from Europe and Żabia Cave.

 
 

 

Żabia Cave

Poland

Talpa europaea

Netherlands, Germany, Spain

Recent

van Cleef-Roders and van den Hoek Ostende 2001

 

MIN.

X

MAX.

N

sd

cv

Range

N

 

L (max.)

 

 

Humerus W( max.)

 

 

DW

 

12.92

 

14.04

 

15.70

 

88

 

0.71

 

5.06

 

13.10-18.20

 

107

 

9.01

 

10.08

 

11.96

 

89

 

0.61

 

6.05

 

-

 

-

 

3.40

 

3.89

 

4.91

 

98

 

0.27

 

6.94

 

3.30-4.80

 

107

 

 TABLE 13. Sorex minutus (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/5, Wrocław – No. ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sm).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth – I1 and A4-M3

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth i1 - m3

Total

Minimum number of individuals

MNI

10

10

17

27

6

12

9

44

53

14

13

0

7

7

3

15

13

423

436

128

17

7

31

38

13

19

1

2

3

1

21

5

176

181

50

Total

45

700

745

215

 

 TABLE 14. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Sorex minutus from Żabia Cave.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

I1 L of talon

H of talon

1.24

0.75

0.88

1.26

0.77

0.89

1.29

0.79

0.91

2

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

L

A4

W

0.48

 

0.46

0.50

 

0.49

0.53

 

0.52

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A5

W

0.54

 

0.46

0.54

 

0.47

0.54

 

0.48

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

P4 L

1.13

1.28

0.48

17

-

7.81

L(max.)

M1 L(med.)

W(max.)

1.17

0.95

1.27

1.26

1.01

1.40

1.33

1.05

1.50

13

13

13

0.05

0.03

0.08

3.74

2.97

5.71

L(max.)

M2 L(med.)

W(max.)

1.03

0.78

1.19

1.11

0.90

1.29

1.18

0.97

1.39

8

8

8

0.06

0.06

0.09

5.40

6.67

6.98

 

 TABLE 15. Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Sorex minutus from Żabia Cave.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

i1

W

2.55

 

0.65

2.71

 

0.68

2.89

 

0.72

10

 

17

0.09

 

0.02

3.32

 

2.94

a1 L

0.75

0.79

0.85

6

-

-

L

p4

W

0.76

 

0.49

0.83

 

0.53

0.88

 

0.56

11

 

11

0.03

 

0.02

3.61

 

3.77

L

m1

W

1.15

 

0.64

1.22

 

0.68

1.27

 

0.75

28

 

28

0.03

 

0.02

2.46

 

2.94

L

m2

W

0,98

 

0.60

1.05

 

0.64

1.15

 

0.72

30

 

30

0.04

 

0.03

3.81

 

4.69

L

m3

W

0.85

 

0.48

0.93

 

0.51

1.07

 

0.56

18

 

18

0.06

 

0.02

6.45

 

3.92

 

m1 – m3 L(occl.)

 

3.07

 

3.16

 

3.24

 

15

 

0.05

 

1.58

H of mandible

below m2

 

0.80

 

0.92

 

1.12

 

57

 

0.06

 

6.52

H of ascending

Ramus

 

2.96

 

3.18

 

3.53

 

44

 

0.11

 

3,46

W of coronoid

Process

 

0.50

 

0.62

 

0.72

 

44

 

0.05

 

8.06

H of condyloid

Process

 

1.25

 

1.42

 

1.58

 

36

 

0.07

 

4.93

W of interarticular

Area

 

0.41

 

0.48

 

0.57

 

45

 

0.04

 

8.33

 TABLE 16. Sorex runtonensis (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/6, Wrocław – ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sr).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth except of A1

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth i1 - m3

Total

Minimum number of individuals

MNI

10

4

19

23

8

12

16

46

62

21

13

0

9

9

1

15

19

387

406

141

17

2

19

21

10

19

3

19

22

6

21

9

115

124

42

Total

53

614

667

229

 TABLE 17. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Sorex runtonensis from Żabia Cave.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

I1 L of talon

H of talon

1.50

0.86

1.04

1.64

0.98

1.11

1.70

1.03

1.17

8

8

8

0.06

0.06

0.04

3.66

6.12

3.60

L

A2

W

-

 

-

0.85

 

0.77

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A3

W

-

 

-

0.67

 

0.63

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A4

W

0.49

 

0.56

0.52

 

0.58

0.55

 

0.60

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A5

W

0.48

 

0.49

0.48

 

0.53

0.49

 

0.56

3

 

3

-

 

-

-

 

-

P4 L (bucc.)

1.30

1.42

1.55

16

0.07

4.93

L (max.)

M1 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.28

1.00

1.43

1.32

1.06

1.51

1.36

1.11

1.63

13

14

13

0.03

0.03

0.05

2.27

2.83

3.31

L (max.)

M2 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.19

0.96

1.35

1.25

1.01

1.43

1.31

1.04

11

11

11

0.05

0.03

0.04

4.00

2.97

2.80

 TABLE 18. Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Sorex runtonensis from Żabia Cave.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

i1

W

3.06

 

0.70

3.27

 

0.75

3.44

 

0.81

12

 

12

0.11

 

0.03

3.36

 

4.00

a1 L (bucc.)

-

1.04

-

-

-

-

L

p4

W

0.93

 

0.60

0.97

 

0.62

1.02

 

0.64

4

 

4

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

m1

W

1.28

 

0.72

1.37

 

0.78

1.46

 

0.84

37

 

37

0.04

 

0.03

2.92

 

3.85

L

m2

W

1.09

 

0.65

1.20

 

0.73

1.30

 

0.77

29

 

29

0.05

 

0.03

4.17

 

4.11

L

m3

W

0.96

 

0.52

1.02

 

0.58

1.15

 

0.63

14

 

14

0.05

 

0.03

4.90

 

5.17

m1-m3 L

3.36

3.52

3.78

12

0.13

3.69

H of mandible below m2

 

1.06

 

1.14

 

1.21

 

60

 

0.04

 

3.51

H of ascending ramus

 

3.55

 

3.71

 

4.02

 

51

 

0.10

 

2.69

W of coronoid process

 

0.64

 

0.75

 

0.90

 

51

 

0.05

 

6.67

H of condyloid process

 

1.45

 

1.70

 

1.86

 

38

 

0.12

 

7.06

W of interarticular area

 

0.45

 

0.55

 

0.66

 

50

 

0.05

 

9.09

 TABLE 19. Sorex bifidus (Warsaw – No. ZPAL M. 12/7, Wrocław – No. ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sb).

 

Layers

Number of fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth

I1 and A5 -M2

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth i1 - m3

Total

Minimum number of individuals

MNI

10

3

13

16

6

12

1

18

19

10

13

2

1

3

1

15

15

219

234

82

17

0

12

12

8

19

1

4

5

2

21

10

40

50

17

Total

32

307

339

126

 TABLE 20. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Sorex bifidus n. sp. and Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus in Żabia Cave.

 
 

Sorex bifidus n. sp.

Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus

 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

I1 L of talon

H of talon

2.04

1.16

1.26

2.08

1.23

1.32

2.16

1.30

1.36

7

9

10

0.04

0.04

0.03

1.92

3.25

2.27

1.73

0.92

1.19

1.82

1.00

1.21

1.92

1.09

1.25

8

8

8

0.07

0.07

0.05

3.85

7.00

4.06

A1-A5 L

-

 

-

0

-

-

-

3.21

-

1

-

-

L

A1

W

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

1.03

 

1.04

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A2

W

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

-

 

-

0.86

 

0.86

0.90

 

0.91

0.95

 

0.97

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A3

W

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

-

 

-

0.65

 

0.73

0.73

 

0.76

0.81

 

0.80

6

 

6

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A4

W

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

-

 

-

0.57

 

0.65

0.65

 

0.73

0.76

 

0.82

13

 

13

0.06

 

0.05

9.23

 

6.76

L

A5

W

0.51

 

0.70

0.56

 

0.74

0.61

 

0.79

4

 

4

-

-

0.47

 

0.65

0.61

 

0.73

0.71

 

0.82

18

 

18

0.05

 

0.05

8.20

 

6.85

 

 

L (bucc.)

P4

W of parac.

(ant.)

 

 

1.56

 

 

0.32

 

 

1.64

 

 

0.39

 

 

1.74

 

 

0.46

 

 

19

 

 

19

 

 

0.05

 

 

0.04

 

 

3.05

 

 

10.25

 

 

1.60

 

 

0.69

 

 

1.67

 

 

0.74

 

 

1.75

 

 

0.83

 

 

51

 

 

52

 

 

0.03

 

 

0.03

 

 

1.80

 

 

4.05

L (max.)

M1 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.44

1.15

1.74

1.50

1.27

1.79

1.54

1.35

1.90

6

8

6

-

0.07

-

-

5.51

-

1.39

1.14

1.68

1.49

1.24

1.77

1.59

1.38

1.90

33

33

32

0.05

0.07

0.05

3.36

5.64

2.82

L (max.)

M2 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.34

1.13

1.62

1.35

1.16

1.64

1.36

1.20

1.67

2

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.22

1.04

1.53

1.32

1.13

1.65

1.46

1.27

1.75

15

13

14

0.07

0.07

0.06

5.30

6.19

3.64

L (max.)

M3

W (max.)

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

-

 

-

-

 

-

0.71

 

1.19

0.77

 

1.28

0.84

 

1.38

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

 TABLE 21. Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Sorex bifidus n. sp. and of Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus in Żabia and Mokra 1 (fauna 2) Caves.

 
 

S. bifidus n. sp. from Żabia Cave

S. bifidus n. sp. from Mokra Cave 1 (f.2)

S. (D.) praearaneus from Żabia Cave

 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min.

X

Max.

N

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

i1

H

3.95

 

0.95

4.11

 

1.06

4.38

 

1.16

23

 

37

0.13

 

0.05

3.16

 

4.72

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-

0

 

0

3.38

 

0.85

3.57

 

0.96

3.76

 

1.02

3

 

5

-

 

-

-

 

-

a1 L

1.00

1.12

1.19

11

0.06

5.36

-

-

-

0

-

1.17

-

1

-

-

L

p4

W

1.08

 

0.78

1.16

 

0.85

1.24

 

0.97

24

 

24

0.05

 

0.04

4.31

 

4.71

-

 

-

1.11

 

0.81

-

 

-

1

 

1

1.01

 

0.81

1.07

 

0.83

1.19

 

0.89

8

 

8

0.06

 

0.03

5.61

 

3.61

L

m1

W

1.47

 

0.85

1.57

 

0.98

1.69

 

1.07

86

 

86

0.04

 

0.04

2.55

 

4.08

-

 

-

1.59

 

0.97

-

 

-

1

 

1

1.46

 

0.92

1.56

 

0.99

1.62

 

1.10

23

 

23

0.04

 

0.04

2.56

 

4.08

L

m2

W

1.29

 

0.81

1.36

 

0.90

1.47

 

0.99

83

 

85

0.04

 

0.04

2.94

 

4.44

-

 

-

1.38

 

0.89

-

 

-

1

 

1

1.21

 

0.80

1.26

 

0.87

1.29

 

0.94

19

 

19

0.02

 

0.03

1.59

 

3.49

L

m3

W

1.01

 

0.62

1.09

 

0.70

1.19

 

0.78

41

 

40

0.05

 

0.03

4.59

 

4.29

-

 

-

*

 

*

-

 

-

 

1/2

1.00

 

0.62

1.07

 

0.67

1.13

 

0.78

10

 

10

0.04

 

0.05

3.74

 

7.46

m1-m3 L

3.78

3.95

4.12

29

0.08

2.02

-

4.02

-

1

3.71

3.84

3.98

10

0.08

2.08

H of mandible below m2

 

1.40

 

1.54

 

1,73

 

1.51

 

0.08

 

5.19

 

1.58

 

1.59

 

1.60

 

2

 

1.31

 

1.42

 

1.60

 

17

 

0.08

 

5.63

H of ascending ramus

 

4.50

 

4.95

 

5.39

 

117

 

0.15

 

3.03

 

-

 

4.95

 

-

 

1

 

4.62

 

4.85

 

5.10

 

19

 

0.10

 

2.06

W of coronoid process

 

0,90

 

1.08

 

1.28

 

129

 

0.08

 

7.41

 

-

 

1.15

 

-

 

1

 

1.15

 

1.25

 

1.43

 

22

 

0.09

 

7.20

H of condyloid process

 

2.18

 

2.37

 

2.64

 

95

 

0.10

 

4.22

 

2.27

 

2.32

 

2.38

 

2

 

1.61

 

1.90

 

2.05

 

22

 

0.10

 

5.26

W of interarticular area

 

0.64

 

0.75

 

0.90

 

141

 

0.06

 

8.00

 

0.70

 

0.77

 

0.84

 

2

 

0.54

 

0.68

 

0.79

 

27

 

0.06

 

8.82

m2 shorter than m1 (in %)

 

7.90

 

13.73

 

17.31

 

60

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

13.21

 

-

 

1

 

18.12

 

20.08

 

25.93

 

58

 

-

 

-

 TABLE 22. Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/8, Wrocław – No. ZPALUWr/JZ/II/SDp).

 

Layers

Number of fragmentary maxillae and detached upper teeth

I1 – M3

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth i1 - m3

Total

Minimum number of individuals

MNI

12

0

1

1

1

13

1

0

1

1

15

74

100

174

37

17

4

40

44

18

19

2

1

3

1

21

20

70

90

30

Total

101

212

313

88

 TABLE 23. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Sorex (Drepanosorex) margaritodon and Sorex (Drepanosorex) savini.

 
 

 

 

Żabia Cave

Sorex (Drepanosorex)

margaritodon

Betfia IX, VII/1, VII/3

Romania

Rzebik-Kowalska 2000a

Sorex (Drepanosorex)

savini

Zalesiaki 1A, Kozi Grzbiet

Poland

Rzebik-Kowalska 1991

L

A2

W

1.14

 

1.06

0.98 – 1.13, n=10

 

0.80 – 1.09, n=10

1.07 – 1.09, n=2

 

0.98 – 1.03, n=2

P4 L

1.92

1.59 – 1.77, n=59

1.66 – 1.80, n=6

L (max.)

M1 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.50

1.23

1.85

1.49 – 1.66, n=65

1.23 – 1.46, n=73

1.71 – 2.02, n= 64

1.55 – 1.63, n=4

1.32 – 1.39, n=4

1.79 – 200, n=4

L (max.)

M2 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.18

0.99

1.65

1.25 – 1.49, n=43

1.06 – 1.32, n=49

1.59 – 1.87, n= 45

1.42 – 1.45, n=3

1.20 – 1.28, n=3

1.65 – 1.72, n=3

L (max.)

M3

W (max.)

0.69

 

1.10

0.81 – 0.89, n=4

 

1.35 – 1.53, n=4

-

 

-

M1 L (max.) /

M2 L (max.) ratio

 

1.27

 

1.10 – 1.22, n=21

 

1.00 – 1.04, n=4

 TABLE 24. Asoriculus gibberodon (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/9, Wrocław – ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Ag).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth – I1 and A4-M3

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower i1

Total

Minimum number of individuals MNI

15

0

5

5

4

21

0

3

3

1

Total

0

8

8

5

 TABLE 25. Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Asoriculus gibberodon and Asoriculus thenii.

 
 

 

Asoriculus gibberodon

Żabia Cave

Asoriculus gibberodon

3 localities

 

Hungary

MN14-17

Reumer 1984

Asoriculus thenii

 

Tatinja Draga

Podumci 1

Croatia

Early Pleistocene

Malez and Rabeder 1984

L (overall length) A

 

L (anterior section) B

i1

W (overall width)

 

A/B

3.34-3.64, n=5

 

1.10-1.28, n=5

 

0.87-0.92, n=5

 

2.83-3.11, n=5

2.80-3.89, n=91

 

-

 

-

 

-

4.60-5.18, n=11

 

-

 

-

 

-

L

m1

W

1.38-1.49, n=2

 

0.81-0.92, n=2

1.38-1.81, n=203

 

-

1.66-1.93, n=21

 

1.01-1.15, n=3

L

m2

W

1.34

 

0.80

1.27-1.63, n=218

 

-

1.52-1.70, n=16

 

1.01

H of manduble

below m2

 

1.36-1.44, n=2

 

-

 

-

H of ascending

ramus

 

3.99-4.16, n=2

 

3.67-4.58, n=107

 

4.56-5.04, n=11

W of coronoid

process

 

0.92-0.93, n=2

 

-

 

-

H of condyloid

process

 

1.96-2.03, n=2

 

1.85-2.55

n=181

 

-

W of interarticular

area

 

0.36-0.55, n=2

 

-

 

-

 TABLE 26. Dimension (in mm) of the mandible of Neomys newtoni.

 
 

Żabia Cave

specimen 1

 

Żabia Cave

specimen 2

Neomys newtoni

West Runton

 

 

 

England

Middle Pleistocene

 

Hinton 1911

Neomys newtoni

Zalesiaki 1A, Kozi Grzbiet

 

 

Poland

Early and Early/Middle Pleistocene

 

Rzebik-Kowalska 1991

Neomys newtoni

Treugolnaya Cave

 

 

Russia

Middle Pleistocene

 

Zaitsev and Baryshnikov 2002

Neomys hintoni

Treugolnaya Cave

 

 

Russia

Middle Pleistocene

 

Zaitsev and Baryshnikov 2002

Neomys anomalus

 

 

 

 

Poland

 

Recent

H of ascending ramus

-

4.38

4.07

4.08-4.33

n=3

3.90

3.90-4.25

n=3

3.83-4.15

n=6

W of coronoid process

-

0.98

-

-

-

-

0.70-0.88

n=6

H of condyloid process

2.20

2.11

-

2.03

2.25

2.20-2.50

n=4

2.17-2.40

n=6

W of interarticular area

0.48

0.47

-

-

-

-

0.38-046

n=6

 TABLE 27. Petenyia hungarica (Warsaw - No. ZPAL M. 12/10, Wrocław – ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Ph).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth

(I3, A1-A2

and P4-M3)

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth (i1-m3)

Total

Minimum number of individuals

 

MNI

10

2

0

2

2

15

26

125

151

42

17

9

15

24

8

19

1

3

4

1

21

4

32

36

11

Total

42

175

217

64

 TABLE 28. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Petenyia hungarica.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

I1 L of talon

H of talon

2..28

1.27

1.28

2.45

1.34

1.33

2.59

1.41

1.41

8

9

12

0.09

0.04

0.04

3.67

2.98

3.01

L

A1

W

-

 

-

1.09

 

0.70

 

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A2

W

0.80

 

0.62

.82

 

0.64

0.84

 

0.67

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

L

A3

W

-

 

-

0.44

 

0.51

-

 

-

1

 

1

-

 

-

-

 

-

 

P4 L (bucc,)

 

1.50

 

1.57

 

1.61

 

12

 

0.03

 

1.91

L (max.)

M1 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.39

1.29

1.46

1.45

1.33

1.57

1.54

1.39

1.66

15

15

15

0.04

0.03

0.05

2.76

2.26

3.18

L (max.)

M2 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.24

1.11

1.39

1.30

1.18

1.48

1.36

1.24

1.55

11

12

11

0.04

0.04

0.05

3.08

3.39

3.39

L (max.)

M3

W (max.)

0.59

 

1.22

0.60

 

1.22

0.62

 

1.22

2

 

2

-

 

-

-

 

-

 

 TABLE 29. Dimensions of mandible and lower teeth (in mm) of Petenyia hungarica.

 
 

 

Min.

 

X

 

Max.

 

N

 

sd

 

cv

L (bucc.)

i1

W (bucc.)

3.76

 

0.87

3.96

 

0.97

4.14

 

1.05

17

 

22

0.10

 

0.05

2.52

 

5,15

 

a1 L (bucc.)

 

0.71

 

0.79

 

0.95

 

6

 

-

 

-

L (occ.)

p4

W (occ.)

0.92

 

0.70

0.99

 

0.78

1.12

 

0.85

8

 

8

0.06

 

0.05

6.06

 

6,41

L (occ.)

m1

W (occ.)

1.41

 

0.86

1.46

 

0.92

1.51

 

0.98

28

 

28

0.03

 

0.02

2.05

 

2.17

L (occ.)

m2

W (occ.)

 

1.24

 

0.81

 

1.30

 

0.85

 

1.39

 

0.90

 

29

 

29

 

0.03

 

0.02

 

2.31

 

2.35

 

L (occ.)

m3

W (occ.)

 

1.07

 

0.57

 

1.12

 

0.64

 

1.17

 

0.73

 

21

 

22

 

0.04

 

0.04

 

3.57

 

6.25

 

m1-m3 L (occ.)

 

3.71

 

3.78

 

3.86

 

20

 

0.05

 

1.32

 

H of mandible below m2

 

 

1.47

 

 

1.55

 

 

1.63

 

 

29

 

 

0.04

 

 

2.58

 

H of ascending ramus

 

4.10

 

4.40

 

4.60

 

21

 

0.15

 

3.41

 

W of coronoid process

 

0.90

 

1.11

 

1.21

 

23

 

0.08

 

7.21

 

H of condyloid process

 

1.85

 

1.99

 

2.29

 

22

 

0.10

 

5.02

 

W of interarticular area

 

0.63

 

0.72

 

0.78

 

24

 

0.04

 

5.55

 TABLE 30. Beremendia fissidens (Warsaw – No. ZPAL M. 12/11, Wrocław - No. ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Bf).

 

Layers

Number of detached upper teeth

(I3, C, P2

and P4-M3)

Number of fragmentary mandibles and detached lower teeth (p1-m3)

Total

Minimum number of individuals

 

MNI

10

2

3

5

2

12

10

4

14

3

15

725

1022

1747

243

17

83

139

222

36

19

3

0

3

2

21

51

70

121

17

Total

874

1238

2112

303

 TABLE 31. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Beremendia fissidens.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

Sd

cv

L

I1 H of

talon

3.29

 

2.17

3.80

 

2.38

4.38

 

2.69

21

 

31

0.29

 

0.15

7.36

 

6.30

 

A1-A4 L

 

3.11

 

3.37

 

3.70

 

6

 

0.19

 

5.64

L

A1

W

1.54

 

1.04

1.66

 

1.13

1.78

 

1.23

11

 

15

0.07

 

0.06

4.22

 

5.31

L

A2

W

1.31

 

0.94

1.40

 

1.04

1.55

 

1.18

12

 

13

0.07

 

0.06

5.00

 

5.77

L

A3

W

0.68

 

0.79

0.81

 

0.88

0.95

 

0.94

12

 

11

0.08

 

0.05

9.88

 

5.68

L

A4

W

0.45

 

0.61

0.51

 

0.68

0.58

 

0.78

9

 

8

0.05

 

0.06

9.80

 

8.82

P4 L (bucc.)

2.60

2.80

3.09

27

0.14

5.00

L (max.)

M1 L (med.)

W (max.)

2.31

1.73

2.49

2.43

1.88

2.65

2.57

2.10

2.87

25

30

25

0.08

0.11

0.10

3.29

5.85

3.77

L (max.)

M2 L (med.)

W (max.)

1.83

1.50

2.30

1.98

1.62

2.49

2.13

1.74

2.75

23

25

23

0.08

0.06

0.13

4.04

3.70

5.22

L (max.)

M3

W (max.)

0.77

 

1..38

0.87

 

1.49

0.97

 

11.65

6

 

5

0.08

0.11

9.19

 

7.38

 

 TABLE 32. Dimensions of mandible and lower teeth (in mm) of Beremendia fissidens.

 
 

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

L

i1

W

 

5.53

 

1.20

6.23

 

1.46

7.23

 

1.76

153

 

164

0.34

 

0.10

5.46

 

6.85

a1 L

1.25

1.35

1.52

13

0.09

6.67

L

p4

W

1.63

 

1.20

1.72

 

1.34

1.84

 

1.50

15

 

15

0.06

 

0.09

3.49

 

6.72

L

m1

W

2.25

 

1.43

2.45

 

1.59

2.72

 

1.76

29

 

31

0.10

 

0.09

4.08

 

5.66

L

m2

W

2,01

 

1.25

2.10

 

1.34

2.22

 

1.55

23

 

23

0.06

 

0.08

2.86

 

5.97

L

m3

W

1.42

 

0.81

1.58

 

0,93

1.70

 

1.06

13

 

13

0.09

 

0.08

5.06

 

8.60

m1 – m3 L

5.83

6.00

6.20

12

0.10

1.67

H of mandibe below m1

2..35

2.51

2.86

35

0.16

6.37

H of ascending ramus

6.04

6.59

7.34

25

0.31

4.70

W of coronoid process

1.37

1.58

1.91

31

0.13

8.23

H of condyloid process

3.20

3.58

3.89

31

0.16

4.47

W of interarticular area

1.21

1.41

1.65

31

0.12

8.51

L of mandible without i1

13.30

14.12

15.57

16

0.62

4.39

 

 TABLE 33.Fossil insectivore mammals from the middle Early Pleistocene of Żabia Cave. (see paragraphs Material)

 

Layer

10

12

13

15

17

19

21

Total

 

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

NS

MNI

Erinaceus sp.

-

-

-

-

-

-

86

9

3

2

-

-

1

1

90

12

Talpa minor

10

6

3

2

1

1

450

158

131

53

-

-

24

4

619

224

Talpa europaea

8

5

4

4

3

3

1230

337

271

90

-

-

78

12

1594

451

Paenelimnoecus pannonicus

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1

1

Sorex minutus

27

6

53

14

7

3

436

128

38

13

3

1

181

50

745

215

Sorex runtonensis

23

8

62

21

9

1

406

141

21

10

22

6

124

42

667

229

Sorex bifidus n. sp.

16

6

19

10

3

1

234

82

12

8

5

2

50

17

339

126

Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus

-

-

1

1

1

1

174

37

44

18

3

1

90

30

313

88

Sorex (Drepanosorex) margaritodon

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

Asoriculus gibbeodon

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

4

-

-

-

-

3

1

8

5

Neomys newtoni

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

-

-

2

1

Petenyia hungarica

2

2

-

-

-

-

151

42

24

8

4

1

36

11

217

64

Beremendia fissidens

5

2

14

3

-

-

1747

243

222

36

3

2

121

17

2112

303

Total

91

35

156

55

24

10

4920

1182

768

239

40

13

709

186

6708

1720

 

 TABLE 34. Localities and fossil insectivores from the Zone Q1 in Poland.

 
 

Żabia Cave

Kamyk

Kielniki 3A

Przymiłowice 1B

Przymiłowice 2B

Przymilowice 3B

Erinaceus sp.

+

+

 

-

+

-

Talpa minor

+

-

-

-

+

-

Talpa fossilis/T. europaea

+

+

-

-

+

+

Talpa sp.

-

+

-

-

-

-

Desmana sp.

-

+

-

-

-

-

Paenelimnoecus pannonicus

+

-

-

-

-

-

Sorex minutus

+

-

+

-

+(cf.)

-

Sorex bor

-

+

+

-

-

-

Sorex runtonensis

+

-

-

+

+

+

Sorex bifidus

+

-

-

-

-

-

Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus

+

+

+

-

+

-

Sorex (Drepanosorex) margaritodon

+

-

-

-

-

-

Crocidura obtusa

-

-

-

-

+(cf.)

-

Neomys newtoni

+

-

-

-

-

-

Asoriculus gibberodon

+

-

-

-

-

-

Petenyia hungarica

+

+

+

-

+

-

Blarinoides mariae

-

+

-

-

-

-

Beremendia fissidens

+

+

+

+

+

-

 

FIGURE 1. Erinaceus sp.from Żabia Cave (1-3). Left I3 (1- buccal view); angular process (2 - lingual view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Esp., Nos. 36 and 1 respectively. Recent Erinaceus roumanicus Barrett-Hamilton, 1900 from Poland; angular process (3 - lingual view), M/4909. Talpa minor from Żabia Cave (4-7). Left humerus (4), left M1 (5), right M2 (6), right M3 (7) in occlusal view, layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Tm, Nos. 6, 10, 46, 57 respectively. Talpa europaea from Żabia Cave (8-11). Right humerus (8), left M1 (9), right M2 (10), right M3 (11) in occlusal view, layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Te, No. 15, 1, 10,18, respectively.

fig1

FIGURE 2. Paenelimnoecus pannonicus from Żabia Cave (1-2). Right mandibular fragment with m2 (1 – buccal view), m2 (2 - lingual view), layer 21, ZPAL M. 12/4/1. Sorex minutus from Żabia Cave. Right mandilular fragment with p4-m2 (3 – buccal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sm/36. Sorex runtonensis from Żabia Cave. Right mandibular fragment with m1 (4 – buccal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sr/39.

fig2

FIGURE 3. Sorex bifidus n. sp. from Żabia Cave (1-7). Holotype - left mandibular fragment with m1-m3 (1 – buccal view, 2 – lingual view, 3 – condyloid process, posterior view), layer 10, ZPAL M. 12/7/9, right mandibular fragment with i1-m1 (4 – buccal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sb/45, right maxillary fragment with P4-M2 (5 – occlusal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Sb/1, left I1 (6 – buccal view, 7 – anterior view), layer 21, ZPALUWr/JZ/II//Sb/1. Sorex (Drepanosorex) praearaneus (8-13). Left mandibular fragment with m1-m2 (8 – buccal view, 9 – lingual view, 10 – condyloid process, posterior view), right i1 (11 – buccal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/SDp, Nos. 70 and 43 respectively, right maxillary fragment with P4-M2 (12 – occlusal view), layer 21, ZPAL M. 12/7/2, left I1 (13 – anterior view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/SDp/22.

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FIGURE 4. Sorex (Drepanosorex) margaritodon from Żabia Cave. Rostrum with A2 and P4-M3 on the left side and A2 and M2 on the right side (1 – occlusal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/SDm/1.

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FIGURE 5. Asoriculus gibberodon from Żabia Cave (1-3). Right mandibular fragment with m1 (1 – buccal view, 2 - condyloid process, posterior view), layer 15, ZPAL M. 12/9/1, right i1 (3 - buccal view), layer layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Ag/3. Neomys newtoni from Żabia Cave (4-5). Right mandibular fragment (4 – buccal view, 5 – condyloid process, posterior view), layer 17, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Nn/2. Petenyia hungarica from Żabia Cave (6). Right mandible with i1 and p4-m3 (6 – buccal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Ph/19. Beremendia fissidens from Żabia Cave (7). Left mandible with i1 and p4-m3 (7 – buccal view), layer 15, ZPALUWr/JZ/II/Bf/60.

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