Articles

TABLE 1. A list of taxa and morphotypes recognized from Warman clay pit and their proposed modern affinities.

 

Proposed Modern Affinity

Taxon/Morphotype

Figure number

Lauraceae

Lauroflorum warmanensis gen. et sp. nov.

Figure 3

Annonaceae

Anonaspermum robertsi (Berry) comb. nov.

Figure 4.1-3, 4.5-8

Anonaspermum warmanensis sp. nov.

Figure 4.4

Magnoliaceae

cf. Magnolia sp.

Figure 5

Araceae

cf. Acorites heeri Crepet

Figure 6

Altingiaceae

Altingiaceae Infructescence

Figure 7

Hamamelidaceae

Corylopsis grotei sp. nov.

Figure 8

Hamamelis sp.

Figure 9

Fabaceae

Eomimosoidea plumosa Crepet and Dilcher 1977

Figures 10,11

Protomimosoidea buchananensis Crepet and Taylor 1986

Figure 12

Caesalpinia claibornensis Herendeen and Dilcher 1991

Figure 13.4-5

Crudia grahamiana Herendeen and Dilcher 1990c

Figure 13.6

Diplotropis claibornensis Herendeen and Dilcher 1990b

Figure 14.1

Eliasofructus claibornensis Herendeen and Dilcher 1990a

Figure 14.2

cf. Erythrophleum sp.

Figure 13.2

cf. Gleditsia? mississippiensis (Berry) Berry

Figure 14.3

cf. Leguminosites phyllocarpoides Berry 1930

Figure 13.3

Ormosia sp.

Figure 14.5, 14.6

Swartzia sp.

Figure 13.1

"Thick walled fruit"

Figure 14.4

Fagaceae

Quercus oligocenensis Daghlian and Crepet 1983

Figure 15

Fagaceous Fruit Type 1

Figure 16.1-2

Fagaceous Fruit Type 2

Figure 16.3

Fagaceous Fruit Type 3

Figure 17

Juglandaceae

Eokachyra aeolius Crepet, Dilcher and Potter 1975

Figure 18

Paleooreomunnea stoneana Dilcher, Potter and Crepet 1976

Figure 19

Euphorbiaceae

Hippomaneoidea warmanensis Crepet and Daghlian

Figure 20

Malpighiaceae

Eoglandulosa warmanensis Taylor and Crepet 1987

Figure 21

Moraceae

Cornerocarpon copiosum gen. et sp. nov. Grote

Figures 22, 23

Theaceae

Gordonia warmanensis Grote and Dilcher 1992

Figure 24

cf. Gordonia sp. 1

Figure 25

cf. Gordonia sp. 2

Figure 26

Andrewsiocarpon henryense Grote and Dilcher 1989

Figure 27

Bignoniaceae

Grotea warmanensis gen. et sp. nov.

Figure 28.1

Oleaceae

Fraxinus wilcoxiana (Berry) Call and Dilcher 1992

Figure 29

Araliaceae

"Aralia" semina Berry

Figure 30

Angiospermae

incertae sedis

Infructescence Type 1

Figure 31

Infructescence Type 2

Figure 32

Infructescence Type 3

Figure 33

Antholithes wilcoxensis Berry 1930

Figure 34

Solanites pusillus Berry 1930

Figure 35

Floral Morphotype 1

Figure 36.1-2

Floral Morphotype 2

Figure 36.3-4

Floral Morphotype 3

Figure 37

Floral Morphotype 4

Figure 38

Floral Morphotype 5

Figure 39

Floral Morphotype 6

Figure 40

Carpolithus collinsi (Berry) comb. nov.

Figure 41

Carpolithus complanata (Lesquereux) comb. nov.

Figure 42

Carpolithus prangosoides Berry 1916

Figure 43

Carpolithus sophorites Berry 1916

Figure 44

Carpolithus warmanensis sp. nov.

Figure 45

"Copaifera" yeguana Berry 1915

Figure 46

Palmocarpon wilcoxiana (Berry) comb. nov.

Figures 47, 48

"Sparganium" sp.

Figure 49

Fruit/Seed Type 1

Figure 50

Fruit/Seed Type 2

Figure 51

Fruit/Seed Type 3

Figure 52

Fruit/Seed Type 4

Figure 53

Fruit/Seed Type 5

Figure 54

Plant incertae sedis

Equisetum? sp.

Figure 55

TABLE 2. Taxa and morphotypes reported from other Claiborne Group localities. LK - Lamkin, KY (UF15815); BO - Bovay, MS (UF15737); BD - Bolden, MS (UF15738); WV - Water Valley, MS (UF19309); BC - Buchanan; TN (UF15806); LW - Lawrence, TN (UF15816); ML - Miller, TN (UF15817); NL - New Lawrence, TN (UF15818); PY - Puryear, TN (UF15820); RO - Rancho, TN (UF15821); RB - Richies Black, TN (UF15828); WB - Wilbanks II, TN (UF18927). "*" indicates the presence of a taxon/morphotype in a locality.

 

Taxa / morphotype

Proposed Modern Affinity (Family)

Reference

Localities

LK

BO

BD

WV

BC

LW

ML

NL

PY

RO

RN

WB

Crepetocarpon perkinsii

Euphorbiaceae

Dilcher and Manchester, 1988

         

*

*

*

   

*

 

Castaneoidea puryearensis

Fagaceae

Crepet and Daghlian, 1980

               

*

     

Eoengelhardia puryearensis

Juglandaceae

Crepet et al., 1980

               

*

     

Paraoreomunnea puryearensis

Dilcher, Potter and Crepet, 1976

*

             

*

     

Eoceltis dilcheri

Ulmaceae

Zavada and Crepet, 1981

         

*

   

*

     

cf. Acrocarpus sp.

Leguminosae

Herendeen, 1992

 

*

                   

cf. Caesalpinia L. subg. Caesalpinia sp.

         

*

   

*

     

Senna sp.

                 

*

   

Crudia sp.

             

*

       

cf. Stemonocoleus sp.

*

                     

cf. Cladrastis sp.

*

             

*

     

Sophora L.

           

*

         

Caesalpinioid (?) fruit

*

                     

"Fruits similar to the Sophoreae"

       

*

     

*

     

"Short, broad winged fruit"

 

*

*

         

*

     

cf. Leguminosites ingafructoides

               

*

     

Gordonia lamkinensis

Theaceae

Grote and Dilcher, 1992

*

                     

Gordoniopsis polysperma

         

*

           

Croomiocarpon mississippiensis

Icacinaceae

Stull et al., 2011

     

*

               

Natsiatum wilxociana

                     

*

Phytocrene densipunctata

                     

*

Magnolia kentuckyensis

Magnoliaceae

Grote, 1989

*

                     

Magnolia tiffneyi

*

                     
 

FIGURE 1. Map showing the location of the Warman clay pit, Tennessee, USA.

 figure 01

FIGURE 2. Simplified stratigraphic column of the Paleocene Wilcox Group and the Eocene Claiborne Group in the Upper Mississippi Embayment of southeastern United States. "?" indicates that the contact between two formations cannot be reliably defined based upon available information (Parks and Carmichael, 1990).

 fig02

FIGURE 3. Lauroflorum warmanensis gen. et sp. nov. All scale bars equal 1 mm except for the bar in Figure 3.3, which equals 0.5 mm. 1. UF15826-51527. Laterally preserved flower. Note long pedicel (indicated by lower arrow) and glands (indicated by upper arrow). 2. UF15826-33558. Laterally preserved flower showing three perianth parts and clustered glands (indicated by arrow). 3. Enlargement of Figure 3.2 showing clustered glands (indicated by arrow). 4. UF15826-2237. Vertically preserved flower showing six perianth parts (arrow at the bottom inciates the sixth perianth part). 5. UF15826-51953. Vertically preserved flower showing six perianth parts. Note one mid-vein and two parallel thinner veins in each part, and scattered glands on the perianth parts (indicated by arrows). 6. UF15826-49563. Laterally preserved flower showing perianth parts. 7. Counterpart of Figure 3.6 showing a long pedicel. 8. UF15826-33556. Laterally preserved flower showing long pedicel, perianth parts and clustered glands (indicated by arrow).

figure 03 

FIGURE 4. Anonaspermum robertsi (Berry) comb. nov. 1. UF15826-33565. Note the relatively smooth seed testa and a reniform seed. Scale bar = 4 mm. 2. UF15826-30837. Note the central line of endosperm (indicated by the arrow). Scale bar = 2 mm. 3. UF15826-51266. Note the thick seed testa. Scale bar = 3 mm. 5. Counterpart of Figure 3.3. Note the thick seed testa. Scale bar = 3 mm. 6. UF15826-53986. Scale bar = 4 mm. 7. UF15826-51289. Scale bar = 3 mm. 8. UF15826-51297. A typical reniform seed. Scale bar = 3 mm. Anonaspermum warmanensis sp. nov. 4. UF15826-51284. Note the spiny ruminations (indicated by the arrows). Scale bar = 2 mm.

 figure 04

FIGURE 5. cf. Magnolia sp. UF15826-51344. An elliptic seed with a thick testa. Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

 figure 05

FIGURE 6. cf. Acorites heeri Crepet. UF15826-33571. An incomplete "spadix" showing helically arranged floral parts. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 06

FIGURE 7. Altingiaceae Infructescence.1. UF15826-33568. Showing the fruits of an infructescence. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. UF15826-33569. Showing two pedunculate infructescences. Note the long peduncles. Scale bar = 3 mm.

 figure 07

FIGURE 8. Corylopsis grotei sp. nov. All scale bars equal 1 mm. 1. UF15826-9111. Showing an asymmetric hilum with two arms (indicated by arrows). 2. Opposite side of Figure 8.1. 3. UF15826-9056. Showing the longer arm of an asymmetric hilum scar (indicated by arrow). 4. Opposite side of Figure 8.3 showing the shorter arm of an asymmetric hilum scar (indicated by arrow).

figure 08 

FIGURE 9. Hamamelis warmanensis sp. nov. 1. UF15826-33567. Showing two fruits with long peduncles attached to the stem. Scale bar = 6 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 9.1 to show stylar projections (indicated by two upper arrows) and capsule valves (indicated by two lower arrows). Scale bar = 4 mm. 3. Enlargement of Figure 9.1 to show another fruit. Note the demarcation between the lower cupule and the upper fruit body (indicated by arrows). Scale bar = 4 mm.

 figure 09

FIGURE 10. Eomimosoidea plumosa Crepet and Dilcher. 1. UF15826-33564. Showing an incomplete catkin. Arrow indicates a flower enlarged in Figure 10.4. Scale bar = 6 mm. 2. Counterpart of Figure 10.1 showing nearly complete length. Scale bar = 6 mm. 3. Enlargement of two dispersed anthers in Figure 10.2 (indicated by top arrow) showing a globose anther and longitudinal dehiscence. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 4. Enlargement of a flower in Figure 10.1 (indicated by the arrow) showing a floral envelope (fe), a style and a stigma (s), and filaments (f). Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 5. Enlargement of a flower in Figure 10.2 (indicated by the bottom arrow) showing a floral envelope (fe), filaments (f), and dispersed anthers (a). Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

figure 10 

FIGURE 11. Eomimosoidea plumosa Crepet and Dilcher. 1. UF15826-51518. An incomplete catkin. Scale bar = 5 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 11.1 showing dispersed anthers (a), a style and a stigma (s) of a flower. Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. UF15826-51387. An incomplete catkin showing calyx (c), and a style and a stigma (s) of a flower. Scale bar = 1 mm. 4. UF15826-51348. An incomplete catkin showing attached and dispersed sessile flowers. Arrow indicates the flower enlarged in Figure 11.5. Scale bar = 3 mm. 5. Enlargement of a flower in Figure 11.4 showing a style and a stigma (s), and filaments (f). Scale bar = 1 mm.

figure 11 

FIGURE 12. Protomimosoidea buchananensis Crepet and Taylor. All bars = 1 mm. 1. UF15926-33554. A laterally compressed flower showing filaments (f), valvate petals (p), and sepals (s). 2. UF15826-33559. A laterally compressed flower with a triangular receptacle (r) and stamens (s). 3. UF15826-51359. A laterally compressed flower showing an ovary (o), a petal (p), a dispersed anther (a), and filaments (f). 4. UF15826-8956. A laterally compressed flower bud showing sepals (s) and petals (p).

 figure 12

FIGURE 13. Swartzia sp. 1. UF15826-9041. A pod showing a narrow flange and a short remnant style . Scale bar = 1 cm. cf. Erythrophleum sp. 2. UF15826-5829. A pod with a stipitate base and impressions of 7 seeds. Scale bar = 1 cm. cf. Leguminosites phyllocarpoides Berry. 3. UF15826-5839. An incomplete pod showing impressions of 6 seeds. Scale bar = 8 mm. Caesalpinia claibornensis Herendeen and Dilcher. 4. UF15826-5853. A pod showing outlines of seed chambers. Scale bar = 7 mm. 5. Base of counterpart of Figure 13.4 showing venation of a valve and a wing. Scale bar = 5 mm. Crudia grahamiana Herendeen and Dilcher. 6. UF15826-5869. A pod showing a marginal suture. Scale bar = 5 mm.

figure 13 

FIGURE 14. Diplotropis claibornensis Herendeen and Dilcher. 1. UF15826-7235. Pod showing three zones (boundaries indicated by arrows) of the fruit. Scale bar = 7 mm. Eliasofructus claibornensis Herendeen and Dilcher. 2. UF15826-5842. Showing outlines of 10 seeds. Scale bar = 1 cm. Gleditsia ? mississippiensis (Berry) Berry. 3. UF15826-7066. Showing thick seed chamber (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 2 mm. "Thick walled fruit". 4. UF15826-5835. Showing four normal seed chambers and a single small one . Scale bar = 5 mm. Ormosia sp. 5. UF15826-51357b. Showing a young fruit with a pedicel (p), a calyx (c), and valve venation. Scale bar = 3 mm. 6. UF15826-5820. Showing the seed base (b) and three seed chambers. Scale bar = 5 mm.

 figure 14

FIGURE 15. Quercus oligocenensis Daghlian and Crepet. 1. UF15826-51481. Showing an incomplete staminate catkin. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 15.1 to show a cluster of florets. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 3. UF15826-51384. Showing an incomplete catkin with at least 8 flower heads. Scale bar = 2 mm.

 figure 15

FIGURE 16. Fagaceous Fruit Type 1. 1. UF15826-51476. Simple and branched spines (appendages). Scale bar = 3 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 16.1 to show branched spines. Scale bar = 2 mm. Fagaceous Fruit Type 2. 3. UF15826-51231. Simple spines. Scale bar = 3 mm. Castanea mollissima Blume. 4. UF1248. Extant fruit showing simple spines. Scale bar = 1 cm.

figure 16 

FIGURE 17. Fagaceous Fruit Type 3. 1. UF15826-29216. A long peduncle and thorn-like appendages. Scale bar = 4 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 17.1 to show the thorns on the peduncle. Scale bar = 2 mm. 3. Enlargement of Figure 17.1 to show the web-like pattern of the appendages. Scale bar = 1 mm. 4. UF15826-51307. A small fruit; note the intertwining spines. Scale bar = 1 mm.

figure 17 

FIGURE 18. Eokachyra aeolius Crepet, Dilcher, and Potter. 1. UF15826-33572. A complete catkin with mature flowers on the proximal portion and immature flowers on the distal portion. Scale bar = 4 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 18.1 to show helical arrangement of flowers. Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. UF15826-33573. An incomplete mature catkin. Arrows indicate flowers enlarged in Figure 18.4, 5. Scale bar = 4 mm. 4. Enlargement of flowers from Figure 18.3 (indicated by upper arrow) to show distal perianth (dp), bracts (b), and stamens (s). Scale bar = 1 mm. 5. Enlargement of flowers from Figure 18.3 (indicated by lower arrow) to show perianth (p), bracts (b), and stamens (s). Scale bar = 1 mm. 6. UF15826-33574. An incomplete mature catkin with stamens shed. Scale bar = 4 mm. 7. Enlargement of Figure 18.6 to show a four-lobed bract (b). Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 18

FIGURE 19. Paleooreomunnea stoneana Dilcher, Potter, and Crepet. 1. UF15826-1879. A bilobed nut and a tri-lobed wing with well-preserved venation. Note intact sepals (se), prophyllum (p). Scale bar = 5 mm. 2. UF15826-51510. Intact sepals (se) and a prominent septum (sp) dividing the nut compression into two parts. Scale bar = 5 mm.

 figure 19

FIGURE 20. Hippomaneoidea warmanensis Crepet and Daghlian. 1. UF15826-51506. An incomplete inflorescence (arrow indicates floral parts enlarged in Figure 20.3). Scale bar = 5 mm. 2. Counterpart of Figure 20. 1. Scale bar = 5 mm. 3. Enlargement of Figure 20.1 to show a dispersed floret (f), a bract (b), and two attached cymules (c). Scale bar = 1 mm.

figure 20 

FIGURE 21. Eoglandulosa warmanensis Taylor and Crepet. 1. UF15826-33557. Showing a thickened circular rim (r), floral parts (sepals? - sp), stamens (s), and trichomes (t). Scale bar = 1 mm. 2. Counterpart of Figure 21.1 showing venation of the sepals. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 21

FIGURE 22. Cornerocarpon copiosum Grote gen. et sp. nov. 1. UF15826-51278. Showing the syncarp with "tepals" (t) and embedded fruitlets. A ring of five bracts (b) encircles each fruitlet. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. UF15826-9198. A compressed specimen showing the proximal side of the syncarp and the peduncle (p). Scale bar = 3 mm. 3. Same specimen as Figure 22.1 cleaned with HF and enlarged to show at least three embeded fruitlets, their bracts (b), and "tepals" (t). Each fruitlet has a ring of five bracts (b). The third fruitlet is indicated by the arrow. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 22

FIGURE 23. Cornerocarpon copiosum Grote gen. et sp. nov. Scale bars = 2 mm. 1. UF15815-9100. A laterally compressed specimen showing three (indicated by numbers) fruitlets. Note the five bracts of fruitlet 1, the ridges (r) on the bracts of fruit 2, and the tepals (t). 2. UF15815-9101. A vertically compressed specimen showing five fruitlets (indicated by numbers), their bracts (b), and the tepals (t). .

 figure 23

FIGURE 24. Gordonia warmanensis Grote and Dilcher 1992. 1. UF15826-9526. A three-dimensionally preserved five-valved, loculicidally dehiscent capsule. Scale bar = 4 mm. 2. UF15626-52463. A compressed seed. Scale bar = 2 mm. 3. UF15826-51292. A laterally compressed immature capsule. Scale bar = 5 mm. 4. UF15826-51412. A laterally compressed capsule showing a loculicidal dehiscence line (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 5 mm. 5. Enlargement of the base of the capsule in Figure 24.3 to show oil glands. Scale bar = 1 mm. 6. Enlargement of the apex of the capsule in Figure 24.4 to show four-valved capsule and a dehiscence line. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 24

FIGURE 25. cf. Gordonia sp. 1. UF15826-51541. Impression of the base of a flower showing stamen bases (indicated by arrow) and two broken petals. Scale bar = 3 mm.

figure 25 

FIGURE 26. Gordonia sp. 2. 1. UF15826-51405. A laterally compressed flower bud showing no dehiscence. Arrow indicates a bracteole scar. Scale bar = 4 mm. 2. Opposite side of Figure 26.1 showing bracteole scars (bs) and sepal (sp). Scale bar = 4 mm. 3. UF15826-33566. A laterally compressed flower bud showing an apical protrusion (pr) and bracteole scars (bs). Scale bar = 4 mm. 4. Opposite side of Figure 26.3 showing an apical protrusion (pr) and a bracteole scar (bs). Scale bar = 4 mm.

figure 26 

FIGURE 27. Andrewsiocarpon henryense Grote and Dilcher. All scale bars equal 3 mm. 1. UF15826-51407. Top view of a vertically compressed capsule showing loculicidal dehiscence. Scale bar = 3 mm. 2. Opposite side of Figure 27.1 (bottom view) of a vertically compressed capsule showing 5 persistent sepals (indicated by numbers) and pedicel (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 3 mm. 3. UF15826-51406. A laterally compressed capsule. Scale bar = 2 mm. 4. Opposite side of Figure 27.3 showing dehiscence lines extending about 3/4 of capsule length. Scale bar = 2 mm.

figure 27 

FIGURE 28. Grotea warmanensis sp. nov. 1. UF15826-51212. Outline of the seed showing a two-lobed cotyledon within a circular seed body surrounded by a wing (w) with fine striations. Note the thick seed testa (indicated by upper arrow), the raphe (ra), the hilum scar (indicated by lower arrow), and fine striations in the lower part of the wing. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. Pithecoctenium crucigerum (Linnaeus) Gentry, collected by J. Blanchard from Honduras, UF2218 (Modern Reference Collection). UF2218 (Modern Reference Colllection). Showing a winged seed. Scale bar = 5 mm. 3. Enlargement of Figure 28.2 to show the cotyledon, the rahpe (ra), the hilum scar (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 2 mm.

 figure 28

FIGURE 29. Fraxinus wilcoxiana (Berry) Call and Dilcher. All bars equal 3 mm. 1. UF15826-1368. Showing a calyx lobe (indicated by arrow on the left), a peduncle (indicated by arrow on the right), and thin subparallel veins on fruit wing. 2. UF15826-1369. Showing calyx lobes (indicated by arrows) and longitudinally striate fruit body.

 figure 29

FIGURE 30. "Aralia" semina Berry. 1. UF15826-51298. A cluster of at least 10 seeds with the same orientation. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. UF15826-51477a. An elliptic seed. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 3. UF15826-51477b. A seed showing seven longitudinal striations and fine cross striations. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 4. UF15826-51485. A wide elliptic seed. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 5. UF15826-51550. A seed showing longitudinal striations and possible seed hilum on one end. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 6. UF15826-51303. Narrow ovate seed with a prominent ridge in the middle extending to the mucronate apex, no prominent longitudinal striations but cross striations are similar to those observed in other "Aralia" seeds. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 7. UF15826-51483. A specimen showing 12 dispersed seeds. Scale bar = 3 mm. 8. Enlargement of one seed from Figure 30.7 (indicated by arrow) showing longitudinal and cross striations. Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

 figure 30

FIGURE 31. Infructescence Type 1. 1. UF15826-51472. Attached fruits at the distal portion. The depression in the center of a fruit (indicated by the arrow) may represent a hard seed of the fruit. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 31.1 to show pedicels of shed fruits (indicated by arrows). Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. UF15826-51222. Distal portion of an infructescence. Scale bar = 2 mm. 4. UF15826-33570. An infructescence with at least 15 fruits. Scale bar = 2 mm. 5. UF15826-51440. An infructescence with impressions of at least 15 fruits. Scale bar = 3 mm.

figure 31 

FIGURE 32. Infructescence Type 2. 1. UF15826-51525. An infructescence with about 7 attached fruits. Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 32.1 to show persistent styles on the fruits (indicated by the arrows). Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. UF15826-51296. An infructescence with a long peduncle. Scale bar = 2 mm. 4. Enlargement of Figure 32.3 to show clustered fruits. Scale bar = 1 mm. 5. Enlargement of Figure 32.3 to show impression of the appendage scars on the peduncle (indicated by the arrows). Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

 figure 32

FIGURE 33. Infructescence Type 3. 1. UF15826-51328. Impression of an infructescence and a long peduncle with smooth surface. Scale bar = 3 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 33.1 to show impressions of the bicarpellate fruits. Arrow indicates one of the two circular impressions within the larger pentagonal impression. Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. UF15826-51519. An infructescence and long peduncle with smooth surface. Scale bar = 3 mm. 4. Enlargement of Figure 33.3 to show impression of a central receptacle core. Scale bar = 2 mm.

 figure 33

FIGURE 34. Antholithes wilcoxensis Berry. UF15826-33555. A flower showing five triangular perianth parts, an ovary, and a pedicel (indicated by the arrow; degauging confirmed that it is physically connected to the flower). Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 34

FIGURE 35. Solanites pusillus Berry. UF15826-33561. An incomplete specimen showing five separate perianth parts. Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

 figure 35

FIGURE 36. Floral Morphotype 1. 1. UF15826-33560. A laterally compressed flower showing three perianth parts fused at the base. The other two perianth parts are embedded in the matrix (indicated by two arrows). Scale bar = 1 mm. 2. Counterpart of Figure 36.1 to show hypanthium (indicated by arrow) and the fused perianth parts. Scale bar = 1 mm. Floral Morphotype 2. 3. UF15826-51276. A laterally compressed flower showing at least 5 perianth parts and an ovary (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 2 mm. 4. Enlargement of Figure 36.3 to show trichomes on a perianth part. Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

figure 36 

FIGURE 37. Floral Morphotype 3. UF15826-33553. Five separate perianth parts and a small ovary. Scale bar = 0.5 mm.

 figure 37

FIGURE 38. Floral Morphotype 4. UF15826-51304. A flower with five overlapping perianth parts. Arrows indicate positions where the perianth parts overlapp. Scale bar = 1 mm.

figure 38 

FIGURE 39. Floral Morphotype 5. 1. UF15826-5908. A superior ovary with 5-lobed gynoecium and surrounding perianth. Scale bar = 3 mm. 2. Counterpart of Figure 39.1 showing a receptacle and reticulate venation on perianth. Scale bar = 3 mm. 3. UF15826-33552. Five obovate perianth parts. Note parallel major veins of perianth. Scale bar = 4 mm. 4. UF15826-49556. A superior ovary with five radially arranged carpels. Scale bar = 3 mm.

 figure 39

FIGURE 40. Floral Morphotype 6. 1. UF15826-51282. A flower bud with superimposed floral parts. Scale bar = 3 mm. 2. Enlargement of Figure 40.1 showing simple trichomes (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 40

FIGURE 41. Carpolithus collinsi (Berry) comb. nov. 1. UF15815-6894. Showing an elliptic fruit. Scale bar = 4 mm. 2. UF15826-51487. Showing an orbicular fruit. Scale bar = 2 mm. 3. UF15826-51238. Note longtitudinal striations on the upper fruit body. Scale bar = 4 mm.

figure 41 

FIGURE 42. Carpolithus complanata (Lesquereux) comb. nov. UF15826-51486. An elliptic seed showing ridges and grooves. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 42

FIGURE 43. Carpolithus prangosoides Berry. UF15826-51403. Showing two lateral wings with reticulate venation, elliptic central body with longitudinal striations and a median ridge. Scale bar = 2 mm.

figure 43 

FIGURE 44. Carpolithus sophorites Berry. 1. UF15826-51382. A disseminule with a mostly missing thin wall and a central groove (g). Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. UF15826-51517. A disseminule showing a central groove (g). Scale bar = 2 mm. 3. UF15826-51545. A disseminule showing folding of a thin wall. Scale bar = 3 mm. 4. UF15826-51288. A disseminule with a groove (g). Note glands (indicated by arrows) on the disseminule wall. Scale bar = 2 mm.

figure 44 

FIGURE 45. Carpolithus warmanensis sp. nov. UF15826-51471. A spiny fruit showing seed outline, laterally compressed spines on the left and vertically compressed spines on the right. Scale bar = 1 mm.

figure 45 

FIGURE 46. "Copaifera" yeguana Berry. UF15826-51465. A drupe-like fruit showing a depression where a presumed stony seed (s) was located and two projections on the exocarp (p). Scale bar = 2 mm.

figure 46 

FIGURE 47. Palmocarpon wilcoxiana (Berry) comb. nov. 1. UF15826-51232. Mold of an elliptic fruit. Scale bar = 3 mm. 2. Counterpart of Figure 47.1 showing impression of an elliptic fruit. Scale bar = 3 mm. 3. UF15826-51400. A fruit showing longitudinal ridges and reticulate ornamentation. Note fine projections at the distal end. Scale bar = 2 mm. 4. UF15826-51334. An ovate fruit. Scale bar = 3 mm. 5. UF15826-51514. A fruit showing two strong longitudinal grooves. Scale bar = 3 mm. 6. UF15826-51459. A fruit showing longitudinal striations. Scale bar = 3 mm.

 figure 47

FIGURE 48. Palmocarpon wilcoxiana (Berry) comb. nov. 1, 2. UF15826-30831. Part and counterpart of a specimen showing longitudinal ridges and grooves. Scale bar = 2 mm. 3. UF15826-15438. An impression showing longitudinal ridges. Scale bar = 3 mm. 4. UF15826-51279. An asymmetric fruit. Scale bar = 2 mm. 5. UF15826-51338. A segment of a possibly dehisced capsule. Scale bar = 3 mm. 6. UF15826-15389. Another dehisced capsule. Scale bar = 3 mm.

 figure 48

FIGURE 49. Sparganium sp. 1. UF15826-51260. Showing surface depressions and a stalk (s). Scale bar = 2 mm. 2. UF15826-51432. Showing surface depressions and projections. Scale bar = 1 mm. 3. Enlargement of Figure 49.2. Arrows indicate surface projections. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 49

FIGURE 50. Fruit/Seed Type 1. 1. UF15826-51460. A capsule (c) with seeds removed. Note the receptacle (r) and the stalk (sk). Scale bar = 2 mm. 2, 3. Opposite sides of one seed removed from the capsule in Figure 50.1. Note the suture (s) on the seed. Scale bar = 1 mm. 4, 5. Opposite sides of the second seed removed from the capsule in Figure 50.1. Scale bar = 1 mm.

figure 50 

FIGURE 51. Fruit/Seed Type 2. 1. UF15826-51227. A laterally compressed receptacle and its appendages. Note one apically split appendage (indicated by arrow). Scale bar = 5 mm. 2. UF15826-51424. Basal view of a receptacle and its appendages. Scale bar = 3 mm.

 figure 51

FIGURE 52. Fruit/Seed Type 3. All scale bars equal 2 mm. 1. UF15826-51503. Showing a thick seed coat and a smooth inner surface. 2. UF15826-51454. Showing the position of hilum (indicated by arrow). 3. F15826-51466. Showing the position of hilum (indicated by arrow).

 figure 52

FIGURE 53. Fruit/Seed Type 4. UF15826-51415. Showing an elliptic seed with a surrounding wing. Note the central groove (g) which may be the junction of the two cotyledons. Scale bar = 1 mm.

 figure 53

FIGURE 54. Fruit/Seed Type 5. All bars equal 3 mm. 1. UF15826-51425. A fruit with two valves (indicated by top two arrows) and stalk (indicated by bottom arrow). 2. Counterpart of Figure 54.1 showing two fruits. 3. UF15826-51427. Showing two fruits.

 figure 54

FIGURE 55. Equisetum? sp. UF15826-51391. Showing a cone-like structure and a peduncle with nodes and internodes. Note longitudinal ridges on the internodes. Scale bar = 2 mm.

 figure 55

 
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Fruits, seeds, and flowers from the Warman clay pit (middle Eocene Claiborne Group), western Tennessee, USA

Hongshan Wang, Jane Blanchard, and David L. Dilcher

Plain Language Abstract

In this report, we examine fossil plant reproductive materials from the Warman clay pit in western Tennessee. The investigation of about 600 specimens has resulted in the recognition of 60 species and morphotypes. Based upon comparisons of gross morphology of these specimens with available extant plant materials and the literature, we have been able to assess their affinities with several extant families. In addition, 24 morphotypes were not assigned to any family due to the limited number of diagnostic characters. This report represents a comprehensive review on the reproductive materials from a single locality of the Claiborne Group of the southeastern United States. Compared to traditional investigations focused primarily on leaves, this study provides a different perspective for understanding plant diversity for the middle Eocene Claiborne Group.

Resumen en Español

Frutos, semillas y flores de la cantera de arcillas Warman (Grupo Claiborne, Eoceno medio), oeste de Tennessee, EE.UU.

En este trabajo analizamos los materiales reproductores de plantas fósiles de la cantera de arcillas Warman, en el oeste de Tennessee. El examen de unos 600 ejemplares ha permitido el reconocimiento de 60 especies y morfotipos. A partir de la comparación de la morfología general de estos ejemplares con el material disponible de plantas actuales y de la bibliografía, hemos podido evaluar sus afinidades con 16 familias actuales. Hemos relacionado 36 especies y morfotipos con las siguientes familias: Altingiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Bignoniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Malpighiaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae y Theaceae. Otros 24 morfotipos no se han podido asignar a ninguna familia dado el limitado número de caracteres diagnósticos. Este trabajo supone una exhaustiva revisión del material reproductor de una única localidad del Grupo
Claiborne del sureste de los Estados Unidos. En comparación con las investigaciones tradicionales fundamentalmente centradas en las hojas, el presente estudio proporciona una perspectiva diferente para el conocimiento de la diversidad de plantas en el Grupo Claiborne del Eoceno medio.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Nuevo género; nueva especie; frutos; semillas; flores; Grupo Claiborne; Eoceno medio; Tennessee

Traducción: Miguel Company

Résumé en Français

Fruits, graines, et fleurs du puits d'argile de Warman (Eocène moyen du Groupe Claiborne), Ouest du Tennessee, USA

Dans ce rapport, nous examinons le matériel de reproduction végétale fossile du puits d'argile de Warman dans l'Ouest du Tennessee. L'étude d'environ 600 spécimens a abouti à l'identification de 60 espèces et morphotypes. A partir de comparaisons morphologiques grossières de ces spécimens avec le matériel de plantes actuelles et la littérature, nous avons été capable de déduire leurs affinités avec 16 familles actuelles. Nous pouvons rattacher 36 des espèces et morphotypes aux familles suivantes : Altingiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Bignoniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Malpighiaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, et Theaceae. En plus, 24 morphotypes ne sont assignés à aucune famille en raison du nombre limité de caractères diagnostiques. Ce rapport constitue une revue exhaustive du matériel de reproduction végétal issue d'une seule localité du Groupe Claiborne du sud-ouest des Etats-Unis. Par comparaison aux études traditionnelles qui se concentrent principalement sur les feuilles, cette étude apporte une perspective différente à la connaissance de la diversité des plantes de l'Eocène moyen du Groupe Claiborne.

Mots clés : Nouveaux genres ; nouvelles espèces ; fruits ; graines ; fleurs ; Groupe Claiborne ; Eocène moyen ; Tennessee

Translator: Olivier Maridet

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

In progress

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

320 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

wangHongshan Wang
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
USA
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Hongshan Wang is a paleobotanist at the Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida. He has been serving as Paleobotany Collection Manager at the museum since 2003. He received degrees from Lanzhou University (BA in Geology), China University of Geosciences (MS in Paleontology and Stratigraphy), and the University of Florida (MS in Computer Sciences and Ph.D. in Geology with a minor in Botany). He is interested in plant fossils from the Late Paleozoic to the Tertiary. His current research is on Cretaceous and Paleogene angiosperms.

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blanchardJane Blanchard
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
USA
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After completing a master’s degree in botany at Cornell, I had the great good fortune to work in Harlan Banks’ paleobotany lab. Relocating with my husband to Indiana did not result in any botanical opportunities for me so I morphed into a neuroscientist. After nearly 30 years of research work in this field, I retired to Gainesville, Florida and found my way back into paleobotany at the Florida Museum of Natural History.

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dilcherDavid L. Dilcher
Departments of Biology and Geology
Indiana University
Bloomington, Indiana 47405
USA
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As a graduate student, I began to collect fossil plants from the Eocene of the Mississippi Embayment in the clay pits of Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky in 1959. After completing my Masters degree at the University of Minnesota in 1960, I moved to the University of Illinois to work with Ted Delevoryas. During my two years at Illinois, I collected several hundred fossils from the newly-opened Warman clay pit and other clay pits in the area. When Delevoryas returned to Yale in 1962, I followed him. My bulky collection of angiosperm leaves, fruits , seeds and flowers were too difficult to transport to Yale. However, in the lignitic clay of some clay pits I had found some leaves so well preserved that they could be lifted off the surface of the clay intact. On the surface of these leaves there was an abundance of well-preserved fungi. I collected several hundred of these leaves which fit in two cigar boxes. So I took these to Yale and focused on fossil fungi for my dissertation and after two years at Yale graduated with my Ph.D in 1964. The following year, as an NSF postdoctoral fellow with R. Krause at the Senckenberg Museum of Natural History in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, I again began to work on angiosperm leaves. From 1966 to 1990, while a faculty member at Indiana University, I, my family and my students continued to collect tens of thousands of fossils from the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene clay sediments of the Mississippi Embayment. In 1990 I took this collection with me to the Florida Museum of Natural History.

And for the past twenty years, I have been publishing papers that demonstrate that there is evolution in Cretaceous and Cenozoic fossil angiosperms. The concept that fossil angiosperms often represent extinct life forms at the species, generic and even at the family level was not generally accepted during my graduate student days and my early professional life. The struggle to include evolution as a part of the angiosperm fossil record has been a central theme of my research work.

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