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TABLE1. Results of the Multivariate Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA) analysis showing the P-values for the mean comparison of upper (1) and lower (2) log transformed dental measurements of Ganguroo bilamina (+UCMP 88221 from Kutjamarpu LF),G. bites n. sp., 'Nowidgee matrix' (+Bulungamaya delicata) and Ngamaroo archeri.

1

 
 

G. bilamina

'N. matrix'

G. bilamina

0

1.48E-03

'N. matrix'

1.48E-03

0

 

2

 
 

G. bilamina

G. bites

N. archeri

'N. matrix'

G. bilamina

0

5.71E-05

9.10E-26

2.58E-07

G. bites

5.71E-05

0

Fail

0.053

N. archeri

9.10E-26

Fail

0

2.66E-08

'N. matrix'

2.58E-07

0.053

2.66E-08

0

TABLE 2. Results of the Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) reclassification using log transformed dental measurements of fossil specimens, for the upper (1) and lower (2) dentition. Group 1 = Ganguroo bilamina; group 2 = 'Nowidgee matrix'; group 3 = Ngamaroo archeri; group 4 = G. bites. Incorrect reclassifications are highlighted in grey.

 

1

     

2

   

 

 

Upper dentition

 

 

 

Lower dentition

Specimen

Given group

CVA Classification

 

Specimen

Given group

CVA Classification

QMF56318

1

1

 

QMF19870

1

1

QMF56995

1

1

 

QMF19868

1

1

QMF19696

1

2

 

QMF19966

1

1

QMF19696

1

1

 

QMF30400

1

1

QMF19958

1

1

 

QMF56996

1

1

QMF20705

1

1

 

QMF19607

1

1

QMF19900

1

1

 

QMF20248

1

1

QMF19695

1

1

 

QMF20254

1

1

QMF20253

1

1

 

QMF23486

1

2

QMF19861

1

1

 

QMF20246

1

1

QMF19976

1

1

 

QMF20019

1

1

QMF19957

1

1

 

QMF56995

1

1

QMF19857

1

1

 

QMF19903

1

1

QMF19975

1

1

 

QMF56254

1

1

QMF19959

1

1

 

QMF56259

1

2

QMF20017

1

1

 

QMF24744

1

1

QMF56990

1

1

 

QMF20006

1

1

QMF30436

1

1

 

QMF36351

1

1

QMF30343

1

1

 

QMF19988

1

1

QMF36230

1

1

 

QMF19844

1

1

QMF19668

1

1

 

QMF24190

1

2

QMF19692

1

1

 

QMF20039

1

1

QMF234604

1

1

 

QMF30396

1

1

QMF19987

1

1

 

QMF19642

1

1

QMF23202

1

1

 

QMF30397

1

1

QMF20269

1

2

 

QMF20293

1

1

QMF56993

1

1

 

QMF56999

1

1

QMF19801

1

1

 

QMF20271

1

1

QMF19673

1

1

 

QMF19643

1

2

QMF56992

1

1

 

QMF20295

1

1

QMF19985

1

2

 

QMF19947

1

1

QMF19885

1

1

 

QMF56991

1

1

QMF19687

1

1

 

QMF20272

1

1

QMF19651

1

1

 

QMF19640

1

1

QMF19689

1

1

 

QMF19646

1

1

QMF19629

1

1

 

QMF19688

1

1

QMF19674

1

1

 

QMF19814

1

1

QMF52814

1

2

 

QMF30399

1

1

QMF52814

1

1

 

QMF19591

1

1

QMF57020

1

1

 

QMF19810

1

1

QMF57020

1

1

 

QMF19835

1

1

QMF20261

1

1

 

QMF57022

1

1

QMF19589

1

1

 

QMF19836

1

1

QMF19617

1

1

 

QMF57021

1

1

QMF19590

1

1

 

QMF56998

1

1

QMF24219

1

2

 

QMF19834

1

1

QMF20163

1

1

 

QMF19827

1

2

QMF56256

1

2

 

QMF20082

1

1

QMF56258

1

1

 

QMF19597

1

2

QMF56265

1

1

 

QMF24480

1

1

QMF56265

1

1

 

QMF56997

1

1

QMF24475

1

2

 

QMF20108

1

1

QMF24476

1

1

 

QMF20109

1

1

QMF50518

1

1

 

QMF19915

1

1

QMF56261

1

1

 

QMF19602

1

1

QMF56255

1

2

 

QMF50519

1

1

QMF56255

1

1

 

QMF50519

1

1

QMF24216

1

1

 

QMF24050

1

1

QMF56263

1

1

 

QMF30721

1

1

QMF57023

2

2

 

QMF20081

1

1

QMF19965

2

1

 

QMF36364

1

1

QMF19954

2

2

 

QMF24477

1

1

QMF19953

2

2

 

QMF30398

1

1

QMF23491

2

2

 

QMF56257

1

1

QMF20285

2

2

 

QMF24482

1

2

QMF19675

2

2

 

QMF31405

1

1

QMF20310

2

1

 

QMF56260

1

1

QMF29702

2

1

 

QMF36363

1

2

QMF57024

2

2

 

QMF36470

1

1

QMF20011

2

2

 

QMF56264

1

1

QMF19986

2

1

 

UCMP_88221

1

1

QMF19619

2

2

 

CPC_22187

2

2

QMF19616

2

2

 

QMF30390

2

2

QMF19939

2

2

 

QMF22761

2

2

QMF56989

2

2

 

QMF19961

2

2

QMF19918

2

2

 

QMF20255

2

2

QMF30831

2

1

 

QMF30392

2

2

QMF24478

2

2

 

QMF30394

2

2

       

QMF19962

2

1

       

QMF19984

2

2

       

QMF19974

2

1

       

QMF30723

2

2

       

QMF24651

2

2

       

QMF30718

2

2

       

QMF57012

2

2

       

QMF30393

2

2

       

QMF20080

2

2

       

QMF20069

2

2

       

QMF19937

2

2

       

QMF30391

2

2

       

QMF56988

2

2

       

QMF19579

2

2

       

QMF24184

2

2

       

QMF19586

2

2

       

QMF24191

2

2

       

QMF20165

2

1

       

QMF56253

2

2

       

QMF19991

2

2

       

SAMP23626

3

3

       

SAMP27817

3

3

       

SAMP27818

3

3

       

SAMP31834

3

3

       

QMF23776

4

4

       

QMF23775

4

2

       

QMF23777

4

4

 

TABLE 3. Site occurrence (serriated) of pre-Pliocene Riversleigh basal macropodid species, excluding hypsiprymnodontids and balbarids.

 
Species Faunal Zone A FZA? Faunal Zone B FZB/C? Faunal Zone C FZD  TOTAL
  G Site D Site White Hunter Site Judy's Jumping Joint Site Dirk's Tower Site BitesAntennary Site Cadbury's Kingdom Site Camel Sputum Site Inabeyance Site Judith Horizontalis Site Mike's Menagerie Site Mike's Potato Patch Site Neville's Garden Site RSO Site Upper Site Wayne's Wok Site KCB Site AL90 Site Cleft Of Ages Site Dome Site Gag Site Henk's Hollow Site Two Trees Site Jim's Carousel Site Jim's Jaw Site Last Minute Site Main Site NJC08 Site Rick Sausage Site Melody's Maze Site Arachnid Ridge Angela's Sinkhole Site Golden Steph Site Jaw Junction Site Skull Site Encore Site  
Rhizosthenurus flanneryi                                                                       1 1
Wanburoo hilarus                                 1 1 1 1 1 1   1 1 1 1 1 1               13
Bettongia moyesi                                           1 1                           2
Ganguroo sp. 2                                 1 1 1 1 1 1   1   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18
G. bilamina             1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                                         10
G. bites           1                                                             1
Bulungamaya delicata 1 1 1 1 1     1         1   1 1 1                                       10
Wakiewakie lawsoni                             1                                           1
Wabularoo naughtoni 1 1 1                                                                   3
Gumardee pascuali   1 1                                                                   2
Total 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2  
 

FIGURE 1. Ganguroo bilamina skull (QM F56265) from Wayne's Wok Site, in dorsal (1), right lateral (2) and ventral (3) views. (4) Line drawing of the upper right cheek teeth of QM F56265. Abbreviations: ac, anterior cingulum; as, alisphenoid; bo, basioccipital; bs, basisphenoid; cf, carotid foramen; eam, external auditory meatus; ec, ectotympanic; fl, forelink; fm, foramen magnum; fr, frontal; gf, glenoid fossa; iof, infraorbital foramen; I1, I3, upper incisor one and three; inf, incisive fenestra; ip, interparietal; jf, jugular foramen; ju, jugal; lac, lacrimal; lacf, lacrimal foramen; M1-M4, upper molar one to molar four; ma, mastoid; map, mastoid process; mcl, metaconule; me, metacone; ml, metaloph; mp, maxillopalatine fenestra; mx, maxilla; na, nasal; ne, neometaconule; oc, occipital condyle; os, orbitosphenoid; P3, upper third premolar; pa, parietal; pac, paracone; pal, palatine; pc, precingulum; pe, petrosal; pl, postlink; pmx, premaxilla; pomc, postmetacrista; pomclc, postmetaconulecrista; popc, postparacrista; poprc, postprotocrista; pr, protocone; prl, protoloph; prmc, premetacrista; prpc, preparacrista; ps, presphenoid; pt, pterygoid; sfo, secondary foramen ovale; smf, suprameatal foramen; sof, sphenorbital fissure; sq, squamosal; St C-D, stylar cusp C and D. Scale bar equals 10 mm.

figure 01

FIGURE 2. Juvenile maxilla of Ganguroo bilamina (QM F57020) in occlusal view (1), juvenile maxilla of Bulungamaya delicata/'Nowidgee matrix' (QM F57024) in occlusal view (2), line drawing of upper cheek teeth of Ganguroo bilamina, QM F57020, (left), and Bulungamaya delicata/'Nowidgee matrix', QM F57024 (right), (3) and juvenile dentary of Ganguroo bilamina (QM F57022) in buccal (4), occlusal (5), lingual (6) views and line drawing of lower cheek teeth (7). Abbreviations: ac, anterior cingulum; co, cristid obliqua; dP2-3, deciduous upper premolar two to three; dp2-3, deciduous lower premolar two to three; ecd, buccal crest from entoconid; end, entoconid; fl, forelink; hl, hypolophid; hyd, hypoconid; i1, lower first incisor; m1-m3, lower molar one to molar three; M1-M2, upper molar one to molar two; mas, mandibular symphysis; mcl, metaconule; me, metacone; med, metaconid; mf, mental foramen; ml, metaloph; ne, neometaconule; p3, lower third premolar; pac, paracone; pacd, paracristid; pad, paraconid; pc, precingulum; pcd, precingulid; phc, posthypocristid; pl, postlink; pomc, postmetacrista; pomclc, postmetaconulecrista; popc, postparacrista; poprc, postprotocrista; pr, protocone; prenc, preentocristid; prd, protoconid; prl, protoloph; prld, protolophid; prmc, premetacrista; prmcd, premetacristid; prpc, preparacrista; prprc, preprotocrista; St C, stylar cusp C. Scale bar equals 10 mm.

figure 02

FIGURE 3. Lingual view of dentaries of: 1, Bulungamaya delicata (holotype, CPC 22187) from G Site; 2, 'Nowidgee matrix' (QM F19991) from White Hunter Site; 3, 'Nowidgee matrix' (QM F19937) from Wayne's Wok Site; and 4, Ganguroo bilamina (QM F57021) from Wayne's Wok Site (reversed for convenience of comparison). Scale bar equals 10 mm.

figure 03

FIGURE 4. Occlusal view of dentaries of and associated line drawings: 1 and 5, Bulungamaya delicata (holotype, CPC 22187) from G Site; 2 and 6, 'Nowidgee matrix' (QM F19991) from White Hunter Site; 3 and 7, 'Nowidgee matrix' (QM F19937) from Wayne's Work Site; and 4 and 8, Ganguroo bilamina (QM F57021) from Wayne's Work Site (reversed for convenience of comparison). Abbreviations: co, cristid obliqua; ecd, buccal crest from entoconid; end, entoconid; hl, hypolophid; hyd, hypoconid; mcl, metaconule; med, metaconid; pacd, paracristid; pad, paraconid; pcd, precingulid; phc, posthypocristid; pomcd, postmetacristid; prenc, preentocristid; prd, protoconid; prld, protolophid; prmcd, premetacristid. Scale bar equals 10 mm.

figure 04

FIGURE 5. Ganguroo bites n. sp., holotype QM F23776, from the Bitesantennary Site, left dentary in lingual (1), buccal (2) and occlusal (3) views; Paratype QM F23775, right dentary in buccal (4), lingual (5) and occlusal (6) views; and Paratype QM F23777, left dentary in buccal (7), occlusal (8) and lingual (9) views. Abbreviations: ang, angular process; dp2-3, deciduous lower premolar two to three; i1, lower first incisor; m1-m3, lower molar one to molar three; maf, masseteric fossa; mafo, masseteric foramen; manf, mandibular foramen; mas, mandibular symphysis; mf, mental foramen; p3, lower third premolar; psmf, posterior shelf of the masseteric fossa. Scale bar equals 10 mm.

figure 05

FIGURE 6. Bivariate plots of upper dentition of Ganguroo bilamina and 'Nowidgee matrix'. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, W = maximum width, P = premolar, M = molar.

figure 06

FIGURE 7. Bivariate plots of lower dentition of Ganguroo bilamina (+UCMP 88221 from Kutjamarpu LF), Ganguroo bites n. sp., Bulungamaya delicata, 'Nowidgee matrix', Purtia mosaicus and Ngamaroo archeri. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, W = maximum width, p = premolar, m = molar.

figure 07

FIGURE 8. Principle Component Analysis with convex hulls of log transformed upper (1) and lower (2) dentition measurements of Ganguroo bilamina (+UCMP 88221 from Kutjamarpu LF), Ganguroo bites n. sp., Bulungamaya delicata, 'Nowidgee matrix', Purtia mosaicus and Ngamaroo archeri.

figure 08

FIGURE 9. Canonical Variates Analysis with convex hulls of upper (1) and lower (2) log transformed dental measurements of Ganguroo bilamina (+UCMP 88221 from Kutjamarpu LF), Ganguroo bites n. sp., 'Nowidgee matrix' (+Bulungamaya delicata) and Ngamaroo archeri.

figure 09

FIGURE 10. Phylogenetic relationships of Bulungamaya delicata, Ganguroo bilamina, Ganguroo bites and Wabularoo naughtoni (highlighted in bold), based on 108 character craniodental matrix. Fossil taxa are indicated by †. Strict consensus of 78 most parsimonious trees (tree length = 265; consistency index excluding uninformative characters = 0.4651; retention index = 0.732) from maximum parsimony analysis of the matrix. Numbers above branches represent bootstrap values (1000 replicates); numbers below branches represent decay indices.

figure 10

 

 
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Revision of basal macropodids from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area with descriptions of new material of Ganguroo bilamina Cooke, 1997 and a new species

K.J. Travouillon, B.N. Cooke, M. Archer, and S.J. Hand

Plain Language Abstract

A new species of macropodoid (marsupials) and the skull of the fossil species Ganguroo bilamina are described from Riversleigh fossil deposits in Northwestern Queensland, Australia, aged between 23 and 16 million year old. Using the two modern species of pademelon (forest kangaroos), the variation of size and morphology is assessed and helps revise the number of species from Riversleigh. We also assess the relationship of these fossil species to modern kangaroo species.

Resumen en Español

Revisión de macropódidos basales de la Riversleigh World Heritage Area con descripciones de nuevo material de Ganguroo bilamina Cooke, 1997 y una nueva especie

Las relaciones de los macropódidos basales (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) del Oligo-Mioceno de Australia han sido poco claras. Aquí se describe una nueva especie, Ganguroo bites n. sp., de la localidad denominada Bitesantennary Site dentro de la Riversleigh's World Heritage Area (WHA), así como nuevo material craneal y dental de G. bilamina, y se reevalúa el material descrito previamente como Bulungamaya delicata y 'Nowidgee matrix'. Se realizó un análisis métrico de las mediciones dentales de especies de Thylogale que luego hemos utilizado, en combinación con características morfológicas, para determinar los límites de las diversas especies en los fósiles. También se realizó un análisis filogenético para clarificar las relaciones de las especies de macropódidos basales dentro de Macropodoidea. Nuestros resultados apoyan la distinción de las especies G. bilamina, G. bites y B. delicata, pero 'Nowidgee matrix' parece ser un sinónimo de B. delicata. Los resultados de nuestro análisis filogenético no son concluyentes, pero las características dentales y craneales sugieren una estrecha afinidad entre G. bilamina y los macropódidos. Por último, se revisan los conocimientos actuales sobre la diversidad de macropódidos basales en los yacimientos del Oligoceno y del Mioceno en Riversleigh WHA.

Palabras clave: Macropodoidea; Mioceno; Riversleigh; Kutjamarpu; nueva especie; marsupiales

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver

Résumé en Français

Révision de macropodides basales provenant du domaine de patrimoine mondial de Riversleigh avec des descriptions de nouveaux matériaux de Ganguroo bilamina Cooke , 1997 et une nouvelle espèce

La relation des macropodides basales (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) de l' Oligo -Miocène d'Australie n'est pas très clair. Ici, nous décrivons une nouvelle espèce du site Bitesantennary du domaine de patrimoine mondial de Riversleigh, Ganguroo bites n . sp . , de nouveaux matériaux crânien et dentaire de G. bilamina, et réévaluons les matériaux décrit précédemment comme étant Bulungamaya delicata et 'Nowidgee matrix'. Nous avons effectué une analyse métrique des mesures dentaires des espèces de Thylogale que nous avons ensuite utilisé, en combinaison avec des caractéristiques morphologiques, pour déterminer les limites des espèces fossiles. Nous avons également effectué une analyse phylogénétique afin de clarifier les relations des espèces macropodides basales dans Macropodoidea. Nos résultats confirment la distinction de G. bilamina, G. bites et B. delicata, mais 'Nowidgee matrix' semble être un synonyme de B. delicata. Les résultats de notre analyse phylogénétique ne sont pas concluants, mais les caractéristiques dentaires et crâniennes suggèrent une affinité étroite entre G. bilamina et les macropodides. Enfin, nous révisons la compréhension actuelle de la diversité des macropodides basales dans les sites de l'Oligocène et du Miocène à Riversleigh .

Mots-clés: Macropodoidea; Miocène; Riversleigh; Kutjamarpu; nouvelles espèces; marsupiaux

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Revision basaler Kängurus aus dem Riversleigh-Naturwelterbestätte-Gebiet mit Beschreibungen von neuem Material von Ganguroo bilamina Cooke, 1997 und eine neue Art

Die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen basaler Kängurus (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) aus dem Oligo-Miozän von Australien waren unklar. Hier beschreiben wir eine neue Art aus der Bitesantennary-Fundstelle innerhalb des Riversleigh-Naturwelterbestätte-Gebietes, Ganguroo bites n. sp., neues craniales und dentales Material von G. bilamina und bewerten Material, das bisher als Bulungamaya delicata and 'Nowidgee matrix' beschrieben worden war, neu. Wir fertigten eine metrische Analyse dentaler Messwerte bei Thylogale an, die wir dann in Kombination mit morphologischen Merkmalen verwendeten, um die Artgrenzen zwischen den Fossilien aufzuzeigen. Ebenso führten wir eine phylogenetische Analyse durch, um die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen basaler Känguruarten innerhalb der Macropodoidea zu klären. Unsere Ergebnisse unterstützen die Unterscheidung von G. bilamina, G. bites und B. delicata, jedoch scheint 'Nowidgee matrix' ein Synonym von B. delicata zu sein. Die Ergebnisse unserer phylogenetischen Analyse sind nicht beweiskräftig, jedoch legen dentale und craniale Merkmale eine nahe Verwandtschaft zwischen G. bilamina und Echten Kängurus nahe. Zuletzt revidierten wir das derzeitige Verständnis zur Diversität basaler Kängurus aus den oligozänen und miozänen Fundstellen des Riversleigh-Naturwelterbestätte-Gebietes.

Schlüsselwörter: Macropodoidea; Miozän; Riversleigh; Kutjamarpu; Neue Art; Beuteltiere

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

402 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

author 1K.J. Travouillon
School of Earth Sciences
University of Queensland
St Lucia, Queensland 4072
Australia
and School of Biological
Earth and Environmental Sciences
University of New South Wales
New South Wales 2052
Australia
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Kenny J. Travouillon is a vertebrate palaeontologist and palaeoecologist working at University of Queensland, in the School of Earth Sciences. He received a Bachelor of Science (Hons) and PhD from the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

His early research aimed at clarifying the chronological position of the Riversleigh World Heritage Area (northwestern Queensland) fossil sites amongst the Tertiary of Australia, in absence of absolute dates, using multivariate analyses as a tool to group sites of similar age based on taxonomic information. His research also aimed at identifying the palaeoenvironments of Riversleigh's sites, using cenograms. Cenograms are a graphical representation of the logged body mass of mammals in a fauna. The shape of the cenogram can be use to predict whether the environment in which the fauna lives is open or closed and humid or arid.

He was recently awarded with the Robert Day Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Queensland, working on Peramelemorphian (bilbies and bandicoots) phylogeny and describing new taxa from Riversleigh and Etadunna (South Australia).

divider

author 2B.N. Cooke
Queensland Museum
PO Box 3300
South Brisbane
Queensland 4101
Australia
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Bernard Cooke, PhD, was a lecturer in Life Sciences at the Queensland University of Technology until his retirement in 2001. He has since lectured part time at Q.U.T and the University of the Sunshine Coast. His chief interest has been in the discipline of Paleontology an area in which he has authored or co-authored a number of papers. He has contributed to several editions of Campbell Biology, Australian edition. Awards include the Riversleigh Award and Pearson Education UNiserve Award.

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archerM. Archer
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences
University of New South Wales
New South Wales 2052
Australia
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Mike Archer was born in Sydney but lived in the USA until 1967 when he moved back to Australia. By age 11 he was addicted to fossil and living animals. Degrees: Princeton University BA, University of Western Australia PhD. Key positions: Professor, University of New South Wales; Director of the Australian Museum, Sydney; Dean of Science, University of New South Wales. Current research foci on which I have published (~16 books & 265 refereed journal articles): evolution of mammals, in particular monotremes and marsupials; evolution of Australia's terrestrial environments over the last 100 million years; biocorrelation of Australia's Cenozoic vertebrates; impacts of palaeoclimate change; use of palaeontological datasets to optimise conservation of living species; innovative biofuel company; conservation through sustainable use of native resources; native animals as pets; battling Creationists; dental function and ontogeny; megafaunal extinctions; biogeographic history of New Zealand; early Cenozoic biotas of Argentina; megatsunamis; science communication; lacustrine and karst geology and petrogenesis; etcetera. I started the Thylacine & Lazarus Projects to see how far we could get in efforts to recover, revitalize and enable ancient DNA to construct functional organisms. For more info: http://www.create.unsw.edu.au/team/marcher/.

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author 4S.J. Hand
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences
University of New South Wales
New South Wales 2052
Australia
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 Suzanne Hand is a vertebrate palaeontologist and Associate Professor at the University of New South Wales where she teaches zoology and geology. Her research interests are largely in the areas of evolutionary biology, functional morphology, phylogenetics, and biogeography, with a special interest in fossil and modern mammals, particularly bats. She co-leads research of the World Heritage-listed Riversleigh fossil deposits of northern Australia, and is also currently researching fossil mammal faunas in Europe, Asia, New Zealand and New Caledonia. She is the author of 100+ publications on Australian fossil mammals including several books.
Photo: R. Morris

 

All appendixes are in one pdf file.

APPENDIX 1. Measurements of the lower dentition of type and referred material of Ganguroo bilamina in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, dp = deciduous premolar, p = premolar, m = molar.
APPPENDIX 2. Measurements of the upper dentition of type and referred material of Ganguroo bilamina in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, dP = deciduous premolar, P = premolar, M = molar.
APPENDIX 3. Measurements of the lower dentition of type and referred material of Ganguroo bites in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, dp = deciduous premolar, p = premolar, m = molar.
APPENDIX 4. Measurements of the lower dentition of type and referred material of Bulungamaya delicata/’Nowidgee matrix’ in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, dp = deciduous premolar, p = premolar, m = molar.
APPENDIX 5. Measurements of the upper dentition of type and referred material of Bulungamaya delicata/’Nowidgee matrix’ in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, dP = deciduous premolar, P = premolar, M = molar.
APPENDIX 6. Measurements of the lower dentition of additional specimens used in analyses, in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, p = premolar, m = molar.
APPENDIX 7. Measurements of the uppers dentition of additional specimens used in analyses, in mms. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, P = premolar, M = molar.
APPENDIX 8. Univariate statistics of specimens of Thylogale stigmatica. N = number of specimen, Min = minimum measurement, Max = maximum measurement, L = anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, p = lower premolar, P = upper premolar, m = lower molar, M = upper molar.
APPENDIX 9. Univariate statistics of specimens of Thylogale thetis. N = number of specimen, Min = minimum measurement, Max = maximum measurement, L = anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, p = lower premolar, P = upper premolar, m = lower molar, M = upper molar.
APPENDIX 10. Univariate statistics of combined specimens of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis. N = number of specimen, Min = minimum measurement, Max = maximum measurement, L = anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, p = lower premolar, P = upper premolar, m = lower molar, M = upper molar.
APPENDIX 11. Univariate statistics of type and referred material of Ganguroo bilamina. N = number of specimen, Min = minimum measurement, Max = maximum measurement, L = anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, p = lower premolar, P = upper premolar, m = lower molar, M = upper molar.
APPENDIX 12. Univariate statistics of type and referred material of Bulungamaya delicata/’Nowidgee matrix’. N = number of specimen, Min = minimum measurement, Max = maximum measurement, L = anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, PW = posterior width, p = lower premolar, P = upper premolar, m = lower molar, M = upper molar.
APPENDIX 13. Bivariate plots with convex hulls of lower dentition of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, using anterior width. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, p = premolar, m = molar.
APPENDIX 14. Bivariate plots with convex hulls of lower dentition of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, using posterior width. L – anteroposterior length, PW = posterior width, p = premolar, m = molar.
APPENDIX 15. Bivariate plots with convex hulls of upper dentition of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, using anterior width. L – anteroposterior length, AW = anterior width, P = premolar, M = molar.
APPENDIX 16. Bivariate plots with convex hulls of upper dentition of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, using posterior width. L – anteroposterior length, PW = posterior width, P = premolar, M = molar.
APPENDIX 17. Principle Component Analysis with convex hulls of upper (1) and lower (2) dentition of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis.
APPENDIX 18. Results of the Multivariate Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA) analysis showing the P-values for the mean comparison of upper (1 and 3) and lower (2 and 4) log transformed dental measurements of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, with separation of sexes (1 and 2) and without separation (3 and 4).
APPENDIX 19. Canonical Variates Analysis with convex hulls of upper (1 and 3) and lower (2 and 4) log transformed dental measurements of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, with separation of sexes (1 and 2) and without separation (3 and 4).
APPENDIX 20. Results of the Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) reclassification using log transformed dental measurements of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, with separation of sexes (1) and without separation (2).1, group 1 = T. stigmatica male; group 2 = T. stigmatica female; group 3 = T. thetis female; group 4 = T. thetis male; 2, group 1 = T. stigmatica; group 2 = T. thetis. Incorrect reclassifications are highlighted in grey.
Results of the Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA) reclassification using log transformed dental measurements of Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis, with separation of sexes (1) and without separation (2).1, group 1 = T. stigmatica male; group 2 = T. stigmatica female; group 3 = T. thetis female; group 4 = T. thetis male; 2, group 1 = T. stigmatica; group 2 = T. thetis. Incorrect reclassifications are highlighted in grey.
APPENDIX 21. Nexus-formatted character matrix for the 29 taxa included in our phylogenetic analyses. Outgroup taxa was Trichosurus vulpecula. ? = missing data; - = inapplicable.