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Review of the Pliocene and Pleistocene Talpidae (Soricomorpha, Mammalia) of Poland

Barbara Rzebik-Kowalska

Plain Language Abstract

The paper is a revision of mole remains (Talpidae) from nine Polish Pliocene and Pleistocene localities (Podlesice, Węże 1 and 2, Rębielice Królewskie 1A and 2, Kielniki 3B, Zamkowa Dolna Cave A and C and Kadzielnia 1) described by late professor Stanisław Skoczeń in the years 1976, 1980, and 1993.

As a result of the review some species [Condylura kowalskii, C. izabellae (Skoczeń, 1976), ?Neurotrichus polonicus (Skoczeń, 1980), and Parascalops fossilis (Skoczeń, 1993)] remained taxonomically unchanged, some were transferred to a new genus [Geotrypus copernici (Skoczeń, 1980)], to a new species [Neurotrichus minor (Skoczeń, 1993)], to a new genus and species [Scaptonyx (?) dolichochir (Skoczeń, 1980)] or the species and its name were fully invalidated [Scapanulus agrarius (Skoczeń, 1980)]. One new genus, Skoczenia n. gen., and one new species, Quyania europaea n. sp., were described.

A new list of species includes Condylura kowalskii, C. izabellae, Parascalops fossilis, ?Scalopoides sp., ?Neurotrichus polonicus, ?N. skoczeni, Quyania europaea n. sp., and Skoczenia copernici n. gen. The systematic position of the studied forms, their distributions, additional descriptions, and illustrations performed with better techniques than in earlier papers were added.
In the studied localities the fauna of moles was rich and diverse, especially in the Pliocene assemblages of Węże 1 and Rębielice Królewskie 1A, which yielded 7 forms each. The number of mole taxa that could be present from the ecological point of view in particular localities was also discussed.

ABSTRAKT

Praca jest rewizją kopalnych kretów (Talpidae) Polski. Pochodzą z dziewięciu stanowisk [Podlesice (MN14), Węże 1 (MN15) and 2 (MN15/MN16), Rębielice Królewskie 1A and 2 (MN16), Kielniki 3B and Zamkowa Dolna Cave A (MN17), Kadzielnia 1 (MN17 or MN17/Q1) and Zamkowa Dolna Cave C (Q2)] datowanych na pliocen i wczesny plejstocen. W pracy opisano nowy rodzaj Skoczenia n. gen. i nowy gatunek Quyania europaea n. sp. Lista gatunków po rewizji obejmuje: Condylura kowalskii, C. izaballae, Parascalops fossilis, ?Scalopoides sp., ?Neurotrichus polonicus, ?N. skoczeni, Quyania europaea n. sp., and Skoczenia copernici n. gen. Tam, gdzie to było konieczne sporządzono powtórny opis szczątków i dodano nowe ilustracje. Przedyskutowano także pozycję systematyczną i rozmieszczenie poszczególnych taksonów oraz ich ilość, jaka może występować w stanowiskach z punktu widzenia ekologii.

Translation: Author

Resumen en Español

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Traducción: Enrique Peñalver

Résumé en Français

Text

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

In progress

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

in progress

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

TABLE 1. A comparison of selected dental features of genera in Recent and fossil Scalopinae and some Recent Talpinae.

 

Distances between premolars

Presence and size of lower p1

Number of roots of p1

Metastylids of lower molars

Cingula in lower molars

Scalopinae (Condylurini)

Condylura

present - space between teeth long

small

2

present

absent

Scalopinae (Scalopini)

Scalopus

absent

small or absent

1

absent

absent

Scapanus

absent

small or absent

1

absent

present

Parascalops

absent

small

1

present

present

Scapanulus

absent

small or absent

1

present

present

poorly developed

+Hugueneya

absent

small

2

absent

present

+Proscapanus

absent

small

1

present

present

poorly developed

+Leptoscaptor

absent

absent

-

absent

present

+Yanshuella

absent

absent

-

absent

present

+Yunoscaptor

present

but space between teeth very small

absent

-

present

present poorly developed

+Domninoides

absent

probably absent

-

present

present

+Scalopoides

absent

small or absent

?

present

present

+Mydecodon

absent

probably present

-

absent

present

+Scapanoscapter

absent

small

2

poorly defined

present

+Proscalops

absent

?

?

absent

present

Talpinae (Talpini)

Scaptochirus

absent

enlarged

2

absent

Absent

Talpinae (Scaptonychini)

Scaptonyx

absent

enlarged

2

present

present

TABLE 2. Comparison of dimensions (in mm) of Quyania and Neurotrichus .

 

Quyania chowi

Quyania europaea

previously Scaptonyx ? dolichochir (Skoczeń 1980) and Urotrichus sp.(in Rzebik-Kowalska, 2009)

Quyania aff. polonica

Neurotrichus gibbsi

Günther, 1880

? Neurotrichus polonicus

 

China

Late Miocene/Early

Pliocene

Storch and Qiu, 1983

Poland

Early Pliocene -Early Pleistocene

Bulgaria

Early Pleistocene

Popov, 2004

Canada

Recent

Storch and Qiu, 1983

Poland

Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene

Skoczeń, 1980

L

m1

W

1.36 - 1.56

n=25

0.92 - 1.08

n=27

1.49 - 1.46 - 1.51 n=6

0.84 - 0.89 - 0.93 n=6

1.75 - 1.80

n=2

1.10 - 1.12

n=2

-

-

1.70 - 1.95

n=6

1.10 - 1.30

n=6

L

m2

W

1.48 - 1.72

n=33

0,96 - 1.08

n=36

1.48 - 1.60 - 1.80 n=5

0.83 - 0.91 - 1.03 n=5

1.92 - 2.12

n=2

1.10 - 1.25 n=2

-

-

1.85 - 2.10

n=12

1.10 - 1.30

n=12

L

m3

W

1.32 - 1.48

n=20

0.60 - 0.80

n=18

1.85

0.60

1.65 - 1.72

n=2

0.90 - 1.00

n=2

-

-

1.70 - 1.82

n= 6

0.80 - 0.90

n=6

Humerus W of shaft (DW)

1.30 - 1.50

n=10

1.10 - 1.22

n=2

1.65 - 1.70

n=3

1.60

1.65 - 1.82

n=16

TABLE 3. Comparison of characters of the preserved mandibles, dentition and humeri of fossil Quyania europaea, Q. chowi, ? Neurotrichus polonicus and Recent N. gibbsi.

Characters

Neurotrichus gibbsi

(Baird, 1858)

? Neurotrichus polonicus

Skoczeń, 1980

Quyania chowi

Storch and Qiu, 1983

Quyania aff. polonica

(Skoczeń, 1980)

in Popov, 2004

Quyania europaea n. sp

previously Scaptonyx ? dolichochir (Skoczeń 1980) and Urotrichus sp. in Rzebik-Kowalska, 2009

P4

relatively narrow, precingulum and parastyle absent

broader, strong

precingulum connecting the protocone, parastyle absent

broader, strong precingulum connecting the parastyle and the protocone

-

-

M1

parastyle reduced, not protruding lingually, ectocingulum weak

parastyle strong, protruding lingually, ectocingulum strong

parastyle strong, protruding lingually, ectocingulum strong

-

-

M2

precingulum and postcingulum absent

precingulum and postcingulum poor or absent

precingulum and postcingulum usually present

-

-

anterior mental foramen

below p3

below c/p3

below p2

below p3

below p2

p3

narrow, conspicuously narrowing posteriorly

posterior wall relatively broad with a longitudinal groove along the posterior wall

wide, its posterior wall broad and basined

-

-

p4

elongated, talonid narrow, ectocingulum and entocingulum discontinuous

wide, talonid broad, cingulum weak, discontinuous

wide, talonid broad, encircled by a distinct cingulum

-

-

m1

trigonid elongated with the paraconid directed more anteriorly, mesoconid absent, crista obliqua is not separated by a small notch from the posterior wall of the trigonid

trigonid short and robust with the paraconid placed slightly antero-lingually, mesoconid absent, or very small,

crista obliqua terminates anteriorly (bucally) and is slightly separated or not separated by a small notch from the posterior wall of the trigonid

trigonid short with the paraconid placed antero-lingually, mesoconid present, crista obliqua terminates anteriorly (buccally) at the level of the protoconid and is separated by a small notch from the posterior wall of the trigonid

trigonid short, the paraconid situated slightly lingually in relation to the long axis of the tooth, mesoconid absent, crista obliqua terminate nearly in the middle of the posterior wall of the trigonid and is separated from it by a small notch

trigonid short, paraconid placed slightly lingually, mesoconid present, crista obliqua terminates anteriorly (buccally), separated by a small notch from the posterior wall of the trigonid.

TABLE 4. Dimensions (in mm) of upper and lower teeth and mandible of Skoczenia copernici , Talpa fossilis and T. europaea from Poland.

 

Skoczenia copernici

Talpa fossilis

Talpa europaea

 

Kadzielnia 1

Zamkowa Dolna Cave A

Kadzielnia 1

Żabia Cave

Rzebik-Kowalska 2013

 

holotype

Min.

X

Max.

N

Min.

X

Max.

N

sd

cv

Min.

X

Max.

N

Min.

X

Max.

N

L

P4

W

-

-

2.03

1.45

2.07

1.49

2.12

1.53

2

2

2.00

1.47

2.13

1.56

2.24

1.65

5

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.55

0.90

1.63

0.97

1.72

1.10

14

14

L

M1

W

-

-

2.84

2.06

2.85

2.10

2.86

2.14

2

2

2.67

1.90

2.83

2.00

2.99

2.12

8

9

0.13

0.07

4.59

3.50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.46

1.34

2.69

1.45

2.96

1.58

28

28

L

M2

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.05

2.31

2.11

2.46

2.22

2.53

5

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.00

2.22

2.22

2.48

2.42

2.81

29

29

L

M3

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.60

1.59

1.62

1.80

1.67

1.98

5

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.71

1.67

1.72

1.74

1.75

1.83

4

4

L

p4

W

1.97

0.85

1.85

0.85

1.91

0.87

1.97

0.90

2

2

1.66

0.82

1.75

0.88

1.86

0.93

7

7

0.08

0.04

4.57

4.54

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.28

0.57

1.38

0.64

1.47

0.69

21

21

L

m1

W

2.55

1.47

2.38

1.47

2.46

1.47

2.55

1.47

2

2

2.20

1.35

2.33

1.43

2.45

1.53

13

13

0.09

0.06

3.86

4.20

1.89

0.98

1.98

1.05

2.08

1.13

2

2

1.86

0.95

2.02

1.11

2.19

1.23

50

51

L

m2

W

2.24

1.38

2.24

1.38

2.24

1.39

2.25

1.40

2

2

2.14

1.33

2.21

1.37

2.29

1.40

6

6

-

-

-

-

2.28

1.24

2.43

1.32

2.61

1.36

5

5

2.30

1.20

2.47

1.31

2.67

1.40

39

41

H of mandible below m1

2.08

1.96

2.03

2.08

3

1.89

1.94

2.00

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.97

2.16

2.40

17

 TABLE 5. Number of mole species (Talpidae) in the studied localities.

Skoczeń 1976, 1980, 1993, Rzebik-Kowalska 2009, present paper

 

PODLESICE

WĘŻE 1

WĘŻE 2

RĘBIELICE KRÓLEWSKIE 1A

RĘBIELICE KRÓLEWSKIE 2

ZAMKOWA DOLNA CAVE A

KIELNIKI 3B

KADZIELNIA 1

ZAMNOWA DOLNA CAVE C

Condylura kowalskii

-

+

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

Condylura izabellae

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

Parascalops fossilis

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

? Scalopoides sp.

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

? Neurotrichus polonicus

-

-

-

+

-

-

+

+

+

?Neurotrichus skoczeni

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

Quyania europaea n. sp.

+

+

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

Skoczenia copernici

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

Rzebik-Kowalska 2009

Desmanella aff. dubia

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Talpa minor

+

+

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

Talpa fossilis

-

+

cf.

-

-

-

-

+

-

Ruemkelia aff. gettica

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Desmana nehringi

+

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

Galemys sulimskii

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Galemys kormosi

-

-

cf.

+

+

-

-

-

-

Number of species

6

7

4

7

2

2

2

6

2

 
 

FIGURE 1.Condylura kowalskii from Węże 1 (1, catalogue number MF/1005/3) and Rębielice Królewskie 1A (2-5, catalogue numbers MF/1006/2, 4, 8, 12, respectively). 1- right M1, 2 - left M2 (occlusal view), 3 - fragment of right mandible with p1 and p2 (lingual view), 4 - left m1, 5 - right m2 (lingual view).

figure1 

FIGURE 2. Humeri. Condylura kowalskii from Rębielice Królewskie 1A, (1-2, catalogue number MF/1006/16), left humerus (holotype), 1- dorsal, 2 - ventral view; C. izabellae from Rębielice Królewskie 1A (3-4, catalogue number MF/1007/1), fragment of left humerus (holotype), 3 - dorsal, 4 - ventral view; Parascalops fossilis from Podlesice (5-6, catalogue number MF/1018/24), left humerus (holotype), 5 - dorsal, 6 - ventral view; ? Scalopoides sp. from Kadzielnia 1 (7-8, catalogue number MF/1008/20), left humerus, 7 - dorsal, 8 - ventral view; ? Neoritrichus polonicus from Rębielice Królewskie 1A (9-10, catalogue number MF/1015/1), right humerus, 9 - dorsal, 10 - ventral view; Quyania europaea n. sp. from Rębielice Królewskie 1A (11-12, catalogue number MF/1013/ 7), left humerus, 11 - dorsal, 12 - ventral view.

 figure2

FIGURE 3. ? Neurotrichus polonicus from Rębielice Królewskie 1A (1-2, catalogue numbers MF/1015/2, 5 respectively) and from Kadzielnia 1 (3-4, catalogue number MF/1016/1). 1 - right M1, 2 - right M2 (occlusal view), fragment of right mandible with p4-m2, 3 - buccal, 4 - lingual view.

 figure3

FIGURE 4. Quyania europaea n. sp . from Rębielice Królewskie 1A (1-4, catalogue number MF/ 1013/ 1). Fragment of right mandible with m1 and alveoli of c-p4 and m2-m3, holotype, 1 - buccal, 2 - lingual, and 3 - occlusal view, 4 - the same m1 lingual view (enlarged).

 figure4

FIGURE 5. Skoczenia copernici from Zamkowa Dolna Cave A (1-6, catalogue numbers MN/1010/3, 10, 18, 28, and 58 respectively) and from Kadzielnia 1 (7-8, catalogue number MF/1008/17). 1 - left P4, 2 - left M1, 3 - left M2 and 4 - left M3 (occlusal view), fragment of right mandible with p4-m1 (holotype), 5 - buccal, 6 - lingual view, fragment of right mandible with p4-m2, 7 - buccal, 8 - lingual view.

 figure5
 

Barbara Rzebik-Kowalska
kowalskaInstitute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals
Polish Academy of Sciences
Sławkowska 17
31-016 Kraków
Poland
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Barbara Rzebik-Kowalska is a professor in the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków (Poland). She graduated from the Jagiellonian University (Kraków) and received her PhD on the ground of the thesis "Studies on the diet of the carnivores in Poland" in 1973. She has published numerous papers and books concerning recent and fossil (Miocene – Quaternary) mammals (especially insectivore mammals) of Europe, as well as of the Middle and Far East, the Greater Antilles, and of North Africa. For five years (1979-1983) she worked with her husband, Kazimierz Kowalski, in Algeria where they lectured and collected extensive materials of mammals publishing the book Mammals of Algeria in 1991.