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Bathyal ostracods from the Santa Maria di Leuca deep–water coral province (northern Ionian Sea)

Francesco Sciuto and Antonietta Rosso

Plain Language Abstract

In the Santa Maria di Leuca Cold Water Coral province (SML CWC province), on the Apulian Ridge, living and dead colonies of Madrepora oculata associated with Lophelia pertusa and Desmophyllum dianthus form bioconstructions on the flanks and/or near the top of deep mound structures. Mounds are bounded by sedimentary facies, mostly bioclastic and coarse-grained, which represent the transition to neighbouring bathyal bottoms, characterised by pelagic sedimentation.

The ostracod fauna coming from the different sedimentary facies around the mound was investigated in order to document ostracod fauna composition and structure and to identify possible relationships with environmental features, particularly in relation to the coral mound proximity and the presence of the scleractinian community.

Living and dead deep-water ostracods from 20 sites documenting different habitats associated to the SML Cold Water Coral Province have been investigated. A total of 42 ostracod taxa were determined, 34 at species level and 8 at genus level. The living associations consist of only two species: Bairdoppilata conformis and Bythocypris obtusata. Dead associations consist predominantly of the same species (B. obtusata and B. conformis), followed by Henryhowella ex H. hirta group, Macropyxis adriatica, Bythocypris bosquetiana, Pseudocythere caudata, Bathycythere vanstraateni and Cytheropteron testudo. The Framework Coral facies appears to be the richest in specimens followed by the Mollusc Mud facies, the Solitary Coral facies and the Coral Rubble facies. The Foraminifer Mud facies appears to be the richest in species, mostly due to the presence of infaunal genera such as Krithe and Argilloecia. A comparable number of species has been detected also in the Framework Coral facies whereas the species number is lower in all the other facies.

The analysis of the dead assemblages, which include species such as Bathycythere vanstraateni, Cytheropteron testudo and Bythocythere mylaensis no longer thriving in the Recent Mediterranean Sea, allowed to assess that an old component of the ostracod assemblages of the "Santa Maria di Leuca Cold Water Coral Province," seemingly lived during the last cold period of the Late Pleistocene or its transition to the Holocene.

Resumen en Español

Ostrácodos batiales de la provincia coralina de aguas profundas Santa Maria di Leuca (Mar Jónico septentrional)

Se investigaron ostrácodos de aguas profundas tanto vivos como muertos provenientes de diferentes sitios y hábitats de la Provincia Coralina de Aguas Frías cercana a Santa Maria di Leuca. Un total de 42 taxones de ostrácodos fueron determinados, 34 a nivel de especie y 8 a nivel de género. Las asociaciones de ostrácodos vivos comprenden solamente dos especies: Bairdoppilata conformis y Bythocypris obtusata. Las mismas especies conforman las asociaciones de ostrácodos muertos junto con Henryhowella ex H. hirta group, Macropyxis adriatica, Bythocypris bosquetiana, Pseudocythere caudata, Bathycythere vanstraateni y Cytheropteron testudo. El análisis de las asociaciones de ostrácodos muertos, que incluye especies tales como Bathycythere vanstraateni, Cytheropteron testudo, y Bythocythere milaensis - taxones ya no florecientes en el Mar Mediterráneo actual – nos permitió determinar que un componente antiguo de las asociaciones de ostrácodos de la "Provincia Coralina de Aguas Frías Santa Maria di Leuca" aparentemente vivió durante el último periodo frío del Pleistoceno Tardío o su transición hacia el Holoceno. Además, la alta riqueza específica y la alta abundancia de especímenes registradas en algunas muestras, podrían estar relacionadas con un aumento local en la disponibilidad de recursos tróficos sobre el sustrato en relación a la circulación general y a la presencia de bioconstrucciones de corales de aguas profundas. La presencia de algunas conchillas de especies con distribuciones más someras parece estar relacionada con eventos de desplazamiento post mortem.

Palabras clave: Ostrácodos de aguas profundas; Montículos de coral; Mar Jónico; Mar Mediterráneo; Pleistoceno-Holoceno

Traducción: Diana Elizabeth Fernández

Résumé en Français

Ostracodes bathyales de la province de coraux d'eau profonde de Santa Maria di Leuca (nord de la mer Ionienne)

Les ostracodes d'eau profonde vivants et morts provenant de différents sites et habitats de la province de coraux d'eau froide au large de Santa Maria di Leuca ont été étudiés. Un total de 42 taxons d'ostracodes ont été déterminés, dont 34 au niveau de l'espèce et 8 au niveau du genre. Les associations de vie comprenaient seulement deux espèces: Bairdoppilata conformis et Bythocypris obtusata. Les mêmes espèces forment des associations mortes avec le groupe Henryhowella ex H. hirta, Macropyxis adriatica, Bythocypris bosquetiana, Pseudocythere caudata, Bathycythere vanstraateni et Cytheropteron testudo. L'analyse des assemblages de morts, qui comprend des espèces telles que Bathycythere vanstraateni, Cytheropteron testudo, et Bythocythere milaensis – des taxons qui ne prospère plus dans la mer Méditerranée récente - a permis de déterminer qu'un composant ancien des assemblages d'ostracodes de la "Santa Maria di Leuca Cold Water Coral Province" a apparemment vécu au cours de la dernière période froide du Pléistocène supérieur ou sa transition à l'Holocène. En outre, la richesse des espèces et l'abondance de l'échantillon élevée, enregistrée dans certains échantillons, pourrait être liée à une augmentation locale de la disponibilité des ressources trophiques à la surface inférieure liée à la circulation générale et à la présence de bio-constructions coralliens profonds. La présence de quelques carapaces d'espèces avec des distributions profondes semble liée à des événements de déplacement après morts.

Mots-clés: ostracodes d'eau profonde; monticules de corail; Mer Ionienne; Mer Méditerranée; Pléistocène-Holocène

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Bathyale Ostracoden aus der Santa Maria di Leuca Tiefenwasser-Korallenprovinz (nördliches Ionisches Meer)

Es wurden lebende und abgestorbene Tiefenwasser-Ostracoden aus verschiedenen Fundstellen und Habitaten der Kaltwasser-Korallenprovinz von Santa Maria di Leuca untersucht. Es wurden insgesamt 42 Ostracodentaxa bestimmt, davon 34 auf Artniveau und acht auf Gattungsniveau. Die lebenden Gemeinschaften enthielten nur zwei Arten: Bairdoppilata conformis und Bythocypris obtusata. Dieselben Arten bilden Vergesellschaftungen zusammen mit Henryhowella ex H. hirta group, Macropyxis adriatica, Bythocypris bosquetiana, Pseudocythere caudata, Bathycythere vanstraateni und Cytheropteron testudo. Die Analyse der abgestorbenen Gesellschaften, die Arten wie Bathycythere vanstraateni, Cytheropteron testudo und Bythocythere milaensis enthielten, die aber nicht mehr im Mittelmeer leben, erlaubte es eine ältere Komponente der Ostracoden-Assemblagen der „Santa Maria di Leuca Tiefenwasser-Korallenprovinz" zu beurteilen, die scheinbar während der letzten Kaltperiode des späten Pleistozäns oder zum Übergang zum Holozän lebte.
Weiterhin hängen die hohe Artenzahl und die Häufigkeit der Exemplare, die bei einigen Proben aufgenommen wurden, möglicherweise mit einem lokalen Wachstum der Verfügbarkeit trophischer Ressourcen auf dem Meeresgrund, mit der generellen Zirkulation und dem Vorhandensein von tiefen Korallenbiokonstruktionen zusammen. Das Vorkommen weniger Körper von Arten die ein flacheres Verbreitungsgebiet haben, scheint mit einer post-mortalen Verdriftung zusammenzuhängen.

Schlüsselwörter: Tiefenwasser-Ostracoden; Korallenhügel; Ionisches Meer; Mittelmeer; Pleistozän-Holozän

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

TABLE 1. Facies and their sedimentological characters.

Facies

Samples

Depth

Main features

Framework Coral FC AP01, AP030 512-747 Biocostruction dominated by Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758 and Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) colonies
Coral Rubble CR AP07, AP15, AP17 525-649 Silt and sandy silt mixed with abundant biogenic detritus mostly derived from the fragmentation of colonial corals
Solitary Coral SC/HG AP29, AP04, AP09, AP11 505-790 Fine sediments including cobbles and pebbles and hard ground fragments, both colonized by solitary corals  
Gryphus and Isidella GI AP08, AP14t, AP14b 525-530 Fine-grained sediments with Gryphus vitreus (Born, 1778) and Isidella elongata (Esper, 1788)
Mollusc Mud MM AP19t, AP19b, AP21t, AP21b, AP22b, AP24t, AP24b 638-655 Mud with dispersed mollusc shells mostly colonised by Abra longicallus (Scacchi, 1835) and Ebalia
Foraminifer Mud FM AP02, AP03t, AP03b, AP05t, AP05b 506 Silt and bioclastic sand with foraminifers and rare pteropods
 

FIGURE 1. Location of the study area and Geological setting of the Apulian swell (after Savini and Corselli, 2010, modified).

figure1

FIGURE 2. Scheme of facies distribution in the Coral mounds (FC=Framework Coral; CR=Coral Rubble; SC=Solitary Corals; GI=Gryphus and Isidella elongata; MM=Mollusc Mud; FM=Foraminifer Mud; see also Table 1; after Rosso et al., 2010, modified).

figure2

FIGURE 3. Ostracod distribution per samples.

figure3

FIGURE 4. Species distribution in dead assemblages “f”, dead assemblages “w”, and biocoenoses, per sample.

figure4

FIGURE 5. Specimens and species abundance per facies. (FC=Framework Coral; CR=Coral Rubble; SC/HG=Solitary Coral; GI=Gryphus and Isidella; MM=Mollusc Mud; FM=Foraminifer Mud; see also Table 1)

figure5

FIGURE 6. 1, Bairdoppilata conformis (Terquem, 1878). PMC. O FS 16. RV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 500 µm); 2, Bythocypris obtusata (Sars, 1866). PMC. O FS 17. LV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 500 µm); 3, Anchistrocheles tenera (Breman, 1975). PMC. O FS 18. LV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 200 µm); 4, Macropyxis adriatica (Breman, 1975). PMC. O FS 19. LV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 500 µm); 5, Argilloecia acuminata Müller, 1894. PMC. O FS 20. RV, internal lateral view (scale bar equals 100 µm); 6, Krithe monosteracensis (Seguenza, 1880). PMC. O FS 21. RV, internal lateral view (trasparency, scale bar equals 250 µm); 7, Echinocythereis echinata Sars, 1866. PMC. O FS 22. RV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 500 µm); 8, Henryhowella ex H. hirta (Costa, 1853) group. PMC. O FS 23. LV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 200 µm); 9, Bathycythere vanstraateni Sissingh, 1971. PMC. O FS 24. RV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 200 µm); 10, Cytheropteron hadriaricum Bonaduce et al., 1975. PMC. O FS 25. RV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 100 µm); 11, Cytheropteron testudo Sars, 1869. PMC. O FS 26. RV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 200 µm); 12, Pseudocythere caudata Sars, 1866. PMC. O FS 27. LV, external lateral view (scale bar equals 200 µm); 13, Monoceratina mediterranea Sissingh, 1971. PMC. O FS 28. RV, external lateral view (scale equals bar 200 µm); 14, Paradoxostoma simile Müller, 1894. PMC. O FS 29. LV, internal lateral view (trasparency, scale bar equals 200 µm). (PMC. O FS 16-29 = Paleontological Museum Catania. Ostracoda Figured Specimens number 16 to 29. RV = right valve; LV = left valve).

figure6

 

 

APPENDIX 1.

List of the ostracod species found in the samples belonging to the FC, FM, CR, and GI facies from the Santa Maria di Leuca coral province. For each species the total number of specimens found, separated for living association (bio), fresh-looking specimens constituting the recent association (f) and old-looking specimens constituting the oldest Holocene assemblage (w) are reported, together with their relative percentages (%).

All appendixes are available in a zipped file.

APPENDIX 2.

List of the ostracod species found in the samples belonging to the MM and SC/HG facies from the Santa Maria di Leuca coral province. For each species the total number of specimens found, separated for living association (bio), fresh-looking specimens constituting the recent association (f) and old-looking specimens constituting the oldest Holocene assemblage (w) are reported, together with their relative percentages (%).

All appendixes are available in a zipped file.

APPENDIX 3.

List of the ostracod species found in the six facies detected in the Santa Maria di Leuca coral province. For each species and for each facies (including living associations: bio, fresh-looking specimens of the recent association: f, and old-looking specimens from the oldest Holocene assemblage: w), the frequence (i.e., the number of samples where that species has been found out of the total number of samples examined) and the total number of specimens found are reported in the first line. Numbers in brackets in the second line indicate the range of relative percentages.

All appendixes are available in a zipped file.

 

 

sciutoFrancesco Sciuto
University of Catania
Palaeoecological Research Group
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences
Corso Italia, 57. 95129 Catania
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Palaeoecological Research Group, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Science,
Catania University, Corso Italia, 55, Catania 95129, Italy. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel. +39957195769.
Researcher in Stratigraphic Geology at the University of Catania. Member of CONISMA (National Interuniversity Consortium for Marine Sciences) and COCARDE-ERN (Cold-Water Carbonate Mounds in Shallow and Deep Time – The European Research Network).

Experienced in the study of Plio-Pleistocene and Recent marine ostracod associations with special emphasis on taxonomy, stratigraphy, palaeoecological reconstructions and evaluation of climate change.

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rossoAntonietta Rosso
University of Catania
Palaeoecological Research Group
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences
Corso Italia, 57. 95129 Catania
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Palaeoecological Research Group, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Science,
Catania University, Corso Italia, 55, Catania 95129, Italy. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel. +39957195761.
Full Professor in Paleontology and Paleoecololgy.

Experienced in the evaluation of composition and structure of present-day and fossil communities and their changes during time, at long and short term, caused by global change and human activities. The research focuses primarily on: extreme environments, including deep-waters (and mostly Cold Water Coral evivironments) and cave communities; bioconstructions and their guilds; biodiversity and alien species in the Mediterranean, mostly in relation to management and protection in MPAs; bryozoans taxonomy. Interest for popularising science through seminars and exhibitions. 

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