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Reappraisal of the primitive crab Eodromites, with description of three new species from European localities (Decapoda: Brachyura: Goniodromitidae)

Natalia Starzyk

Plain Language Abstract

An exquisite, recently acquired collection of crabs from the Upper Jurassic (about 7 000 specimens) is situated in Museum of Natural History of Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences. It is one of the biggest collections of Jurassic crabs in the world, possibly except the collection in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. The specimens come from eight Upper Jurassic localities in the region of the Polish Jura Chain. Such a great number of specimens allows us to identify more repetitive features, which are significant in distinguishing species and genera.

Resumen en Español

Reevaluación de los primitivos cangrejos Eodromites, con la descripción de tres nuevas especies de localidades europeas (Decapoda: Brachyura: Goniodromitidae)

El género de braquiuros Eodromites es abundante en localidades del Jurásico de Europa. Hasta ahora se han atribuido siete especies a Eodromites, pero solo se conoce el material tipo de tres de ellas. Cuatro especies están presentes en localidades del Oxfordiense de Polonia, incluyendo dos nuevas especies: E. rotundus n. sp. y E. hyznyi n. sp. Se describe una nueva especie del Kimmeridgiense de Alemania - E. guenteri n. sp. Se describen nuevas características para el género y las especies (ranuras anteriores, grupos de fosas hepáticas, tubérculos hepáticos, tres pares de fosas, y la longitud y la forma de la estructura denominada augenrest o falsa órbita).

Palabras clave: Eodromites, Homolodromioidea, Brachyura, Decapoda, nuevas especies, Jurásico, Oxfordiense

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver or Diana Elizabeth Fernández

Résumé en Français

Révision du crabe primitif Eodromites (Decapoda : Brachyura : Goniodromitidae) incluant la description de trois nouvelles espèces provenant de localités européennes

Le genre de brachyoure Eodromites est trouvé en abondance dans les localités jurassiques d'Europe. Jusqu'à présent, sept espèces avaient été attribuées à Eodromites, mais le matériel type de seulement trois d'entre elles est connu. Quatre espèces sont présentes dans les localités oxfordiennes de Pologne, notamment deux nouvelles espèces : E. rotundus n. sp. et E. hyznyi n. sp. Une nouvelle espèce du Kimméridgien d'Allemagne est également décrite : E. guenteri n. sp. De nouveaux caractères (sillons antérieurs, groupes de ponctuations hépatiques, tubercules hépatiques, trois paires de ponctuations, longueur et forme de l'augenrest) pour le genre et les espèces sont décrits.

Mots-clés : Eodromites ; Homolodromioidea ; Brachyura ; Decapoda ; nouvelle espèce ; Jurassique ; Oxfordien

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Neubewertung der primitive Krabbe Eodromites, mit einer Beschreibung von drei neuen Arten aus europäischen Fundstellen (Decapoda: Brachyura: Goniodromitidae)

Die brachyure Gattung Eodromites kommt in jurassischen Fundstellen von Europa häufig vor. Sieben Arten sind Eodromites bis jetzt zugeschrieben, jedoch ist nur das Typenmaterial von dreien bekannt. Vier Arten treten in Fundstellen des polnischen Oxfordiums auf, inklusive zwei neue: E. rotundus n. sp. und E. hyznyi n. sp. Eine neue Art aus dem Kimmeridgium von Deutschland wird beschrieben - E. guenteri n. sp. Neue Merkmale (anteriore Furchen, Gruppen von hepatischen Gruben, hepatische Tuberkel, drei Paare von Gruben, Länge und Form des Augenrests) der Gattung und Art werden beschrieben.

Schlüsselwörter: Eodromites, Homolodromioidea, Brachyura, Decapoda, neue Art, Jura, Oxfordium

 

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

513 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

TABLE 1. Type material of all species of the genus Eodromites (* type material of Eodromites dobrogea was studied on pictures in Feldmann et al., 2006, figure 3.10; Schweitzer et al., 2007, figure 4.3; Schweitzer and Feldmann, 2010, figure 5.4-6).

Species Age, locality Type material Examined material
E. aequilatus (von Meyer, 1857) Oxfordian-Lower Kimmeridgian of Germany and Poland holotype lost in the World War II, neotype - SMNS 67336/1 Material from ISEA PAN, IGPUW, SMNS
E. depressus (von Meyer, 1860) Upper Jurassic of eastern Swabia (Germany) lost -
E. dobrogea (Feldmann et al., 2006) Middle Oxfordian-Tithonian of Romania, Czech Republic and Austria holotype - LPBIIIart-040 - *
E. grandis (von Meyer, 1857) Upper Jurassic of Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Romania holotype -BSP1881IX678 Material from ISEA PAN, IGPUW, SMNS
E. nitidus (Milne Edwards, 1865) Lower Cretaceous of France lost in the World War II -
E. polyphemi (Gemmellaro, 1869) Tithonian of Sicily lost -
E. rostratus (von Meyer, 1840) Upper Jurassic of Germany and France lost -
E. rotundus n. sp. Oxfordian of Poland holotype - I-F/MP/6271/1599/12 Material from ISEA PAN
E. hyznyi n. sp . Oxfordian of Poland holotype - I-F/MP/4973/1543/09 Material from ISEA PAN
E. guenteri n. sp. Upper Kimmeridgian of Germany holotype - SMNS61668/4 Material from SMNS

 

TABLE 2. Stratigrafic age of the studied localities in the Polish Upland (based upon references cited in Starzyk et al., 2012 and Starzyk, 2013).

table3

TABLE 3. Key to species: E. depressus, E. nitidus, E. polyphemi and E. rostratus are included only tentatively, based only on original drawings, as the material had been lost.

  Characters  Species
1a. Carapace longer than wide 2
1b. Carapace as long as wide 7
2a. Augenrest longer than wide 3
2b. Augenrest wider than long, with rounded, posterior angle, assymetrical along the horizontal axis [carapace much longer than wide; lateral borders between outer orbital spine and cervical groove covered with tubercles; behind cervical groove borders smooth, parallel; rostrum short, narrow, with truncated edge; projection of orbital margin intercepts longitudinal axis at angle c. 75o; spines on the upper orbital margin present; hepatic tubercles present; groups of hepatic pits present; three pairs of pits (I-III, compare Figure 2.1) present] E. aequilatus
3a. Rostrum incised in the middle 4
3b. Rostrum without incision 5
4a. Pairs of pits: I-III present [pair of groups of hepatic pits present; lateral borders smoth; hepatic tubercles weakly visible; augenrest 1.75x longer than wide, symmetric along horizontal axis; projection of orbital margin intercepts longitudinal axis at angle c. 60o (Figure 2.3)] E. guenteri n. sp.
4b. Pairs of pits I-III absent [only the tip of the mesogastric region is distinct; posterior margin of carapace not incised, and not surrounded by with a furrow] E. rostratus
5a. Species relatively small (about 4 mm max. carapace width) 6
5b. Species relatively large (about 17 mm max. carapace width) [rostrum short; hepatic tubercles faint; groups of hepatic pits present; lateral margis of carapace covered with small serrations; augenrest 1.4-1.5x longer than wide, symmetric along the horizontal axis; projection of orbital margin intercepts longitudinal axis at about 55 degree angle; pairs of pits: I-III absent (Figure 2)] E. grandis
6a. Rostrum long, broad; lateral borders of the carapace are smooth; carapace narrowing posteriorly; hepatic tubercles small; groups of hepatic pits faint; augenrest barely longer than wide (1.1x), subtriangular, asymmetric along the horizontal axis, with an elevated posterior angle; projection of orbital margin intercepts longitudinal axis at about 50 degree angle; pairs of pits I-III absent (Figure 2) E. rotundus n. sp.
6b. Rostrum long, strongly narrowing anteriorly; lateral borders of the carapace are smooth; carapace only slightly narrowing posteriorly; hepatic tubercles absent; groups of hepatic pits are faint; augenrest 1.2x longer than wide, subtriangular, asymmetric along the horizontal axis; projection of orbital margin intercepts longitudinal axis at about 50 degree angle; I pair of pits present (Figure 2) E. hyznyi n. sp.
7a. Carapace strongly narrowing posteriorly 8
7b. Carapace only slightly narrowing posteriorly 9
8a. Species relatively large (c. 24 mm max. carapace width); augenrest long, projection of orbital margin intercepts longitudinal axis at about 50 degree angle; groups of hepatic pits present; cervical and branchio-cardiac grooves are deep; branchio-cardiac groove reaches the posterior border of the carapace; pairs of pits I-III absent E. dobrogea
8b. posterior part of the carapace behind the branchio-cardiac groove is very short and narrow; cardiac region reaching posterior margin of the carapace E. depressus
9a. Augenrest perpendicular to longitudinal axis of the carapace; cervical and branchio-cardiac grooves are equally deep E. polyphemi
9b. Cervical groove is deep, branchio-cardiac groove is shallow E. nitidus
 

FIGURE 1. Studied area - the southern Polish Uplands, northwest of Cracow (Poland). The abbreviations of the localities B - Bzów, G - Grabowa, K - Kroczyce, N - Niegowonice, O - Ogrodzieniec and W - Wysoka (modified after Głowniak, 2006, figure 2).

 figure1

FIGURE 2. 1 . Groundplan of the morphological structures in the species of Eodromites on the example of E . aequilatus. 2. Reconstruction of the carapace of described species of Eodromites , reconstruction of E. dobrogea is based on pictures of other authors (Feldmann et al., 2006, figure 3.10; Schweitzer et al., 2007, figure 4.3; Schweitzer and Feldmann, 2010, figure 5.4-6). 3. Comparision of shape and length of augenrest in the studied species of Eodromites . Dashed line - horizontal axis of the augenrest.

figure2 

FIGURE 3. Ratio of the AtC and RtC distance in studied species of the genus Eodromites .

 figure3

FIGURE 4. Eodromites grandis 1. Groups of hepatic pits (hp) on the hepatic region (3604, Bzów). 2. Rostrum (4874, Niegowonice). 3. Lateral margin covered with serrations (6259, Ogrodzienic). 4. Hepatic tubercles (ht) in the hepatic groove (4244, Ogrodzieniec). 5. Carapace (6259). 6. Mesogastric region, cervical pits (cp), hepatic tubercles (ht) (928, Niegowonice). 7. Lateral view (6255, Niegowonice). 8. Augenrest, anterior view (6259). Scale bars equal 1 mm.

figure4 

FIGURE 5. Eodromites aequilatus 1. Rostrum and augenrest, dorsal view, pit (I) on the upper orbital margin (IGPUW C/1/26, Antonie). 2. Serrations on the lateral and upper orbital margin, pit on the upper orbital margin (I), groups of hepatic pits (hp) (SMNS70011/2, Stetten). 3. Groups of hepatic pits (hp) (3558). 4. Carapace (IGPUW C/1/11, Holly Cross Mountains). 5. Mesogastric region, cervical pits (cp), hepatic tubercles (ht), tubercles between cardiac and hepatic groove (hct) (SMNS70011/1, Stetten). 6. Pits on the epibranchial region next to cervical groove (II) and branchio-cardiac groove (III) (IGPUW C/1/27, Zalesiaki). 7. Carapace, groups of hepatic pits (hp) on the hepatic region, pit (I) on the upper orbital margin (3558, Bzów). 8. Augenrest, anterior view (IGPUW C/1/26). 9. Augenrest, anterior view (SMNS70011/2). 10. Lateral view (IGPUW C/1/11). Scale bars equal 1 mm.

figure5 

FIGURE 6. Eodromites rotundus n. sp. 1. Paratype, rostrum - dorsal view (3992, Ogrodzieniec). 2. Paratype, rostrum - dorsal view (6270, Ogrodzieniec). 3. Groups of hepatic pits (hp) on the hepatic region (2237, Bzów). 4. Carapace - paratype, cervical pits (cp) (3992). 5. Carapace - paratype, cervical pits (6270). 6. Augenrest, anterior view (619, Ogrodzieniec). 7. Holotype - augenrest, anterior view (6271, Ogrodzieniec). 8. Holotype, lateral view (6271). Scale bars equal 1 mm.

figure6 

FIGURE 7. Eodromites hyznyi n. sp. 1. Holotype, suborbital margin marked with an arrow (4973, Niegowonice). 2. Paratype, cervical pits (cp) (3468, Bzów). 3. Paratype, lateral view, groove parallel to branchio-cardiac groove marked with an arrow (3468). 4. Paratype, augenrest, I - pit on the upper orbital margin (3468). Scale bars equal 1 mm.

 figure7

FIGURE 8. Eodromites guenteri n. sp., holotype 1. Rostrum, dorsal view, pit on the upper orbital margin (I) (SMNS61668/4, Blaubeuren). 2. Mesogastric region, cervical pits (cp), hepatic tubercles (ht), tubercles between cervical and hepatic groove (hct). 3. Pits: I - on the upper orbital margin, on the epibranchial region next to the cervical groove (II) and the branchio-cardiac groove (III). 4. Carapace. 5. Groups of hepatic pits on the hepatic region (hp). 6. Mesogastric region, cervical pits (cp), hepatic tubercles (ht). 7. Augenrest, anterior view. 8. Carapace, lateral view. Scale bars equal 1 mm.

 figure8

 

authorNatalia Starzyk. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences; ul. Sławkowska 17; 31-016 Kraków, Poland; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Natalia Starzyk is has recently gained her PhD from the International Doctoral Studies in Natural Sciences at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków. Jurassic crabs from Polish Jura localities were the subject of her PhD dissertation. In 2014 she started working in the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals of Polish Academy of Sciences. Her research is currently focused on the evolution and diversity of first crabs on European localities.