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PE NOTE: QuickTime 3.0 is required. It is available for both Macintosh and PC. QuickTime 3.0 can be downloaded for free from http://www.apple.com/quicktime/. This file will run in QuickTime 2, but hot spots will not be available.

FIGURE 1. QuickTime VR Object of Elphidium crispum. Magnification is 50 X. File size: 664KB.

Animation code

Figure 1 

To interact with the object, hold down the mouse button and drag the hand over the object. Rotational control is in the horizontal axis. When the hand passes over a frame containing a hot spot it changes into a white arrow pointing into the frame (only when the mouse button is not held down). Click to jump into the hot spot.

The hot spot is located on frames 8 through 11. Clicking on the hot spot presents a second QuickTime VR movie illustrating the aperture of Elphidium crispum through increasing orders of magnification. Control is in the vertical axis. There are hot spots on frames 1 through 4 and frame 21 to jump back to the global view of Elphidium crispum.

Apple provides more complete instructions on the various controls in QuickTime VR at http://www.apple.com/quicktime/information/getstartmp/litemp3m.html#qtvr

FIGURE 2.Elphidium crispum (Linné). A,B as illustrated by Janus Plancus in 1739, C, D as illustrated by Nicolaus Gualterius in 1742.
figure 2
FIGURE 3. Elphidium crispum (Linné). A, B as illustrated by Fichtel and Moll in 1798, C, D as illustrated by Williamson in 1858, E, F as illustrated by Brady in 1884.
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FIGURE 4. Elphidium crispum (Linné). A, B, C as illustrated in the typical fashion for publication.
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FIGURE 5. The long axis of Elphidium crispum was chosen to be the Y-Z plane and was mounted vertically on the SEM stub (represented here in dark blue). The initial images were captured in the X-Z plane (light blue oval). Images were captured every 18° in this plane for a total of 20.
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FIGURE 6. To make a QuickTime VR object that can be manipulated from any perspective it is necessary to capture the object from a variety of angles in the Y-Z plane (light blue arc). This figure illustrates positions separated by increments of 22.5° in the Y-Z plane. At each position in the Y-Z lane the sample is rotated through 360° and captured. Note in SEM work the stage moves and not the electron gun.
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