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TABLE 1. Chi-square tests evaluating differences between the samples of murids of the different fossil assemblages from MCC. In light gray the moderately significant differences (0.05<p<0.1), in dark grey the highly significant differences (p<0.05); df: degrees of freedom; 5df when Stephanomys sp. is absent in both layers.

 MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 MCC3 - Χ2 =2.2377 df:6 Χ2 =8.4798 df:6 Χ2 =12.401 df:6 Χ2 =17.58 df:6 Χ2 =32.087 df:6 p=0.897 p=0.205 p=0.053 p=0.007 p<0.001 MCC3/4 Χ2 =2.2377 df:6 - Χ2 =3.5915 df:5 Χ2 =5.3069 df:5 Χ2 =10.852 df:5 Χ2 =24.571 df:5 p=0.90 p=0.732 p=0.380 p=0.055 p<0.001 MCC4 Χ2 =8.4798 df:6 Χ2 =3.5915 df:5 - Χ2 =5.604 df:6 Χ2 =18.06 df:6 Χ2 =58.075 df:6 p=0.21 p=0.732 p=0.469 p=0.006 p<0.001 MCC4/5 Χ2 =12.401 df:6 Χ2 =5.3069 df:5 Χ2 =5.604 df:6 - Χ2 =5.789 df:5 Χ2 =29.853 df:5 p=0.053 p=0.380 p=0.469 p=0.328 p<0.001 MCC5 Χ2 =17.58 df:6 Χ2 =10.852 df:5 Χ2 =18.06 df:6 Χ2 =5.789 df:5 - Χ2 =9.6227 df:5 p=0.007 p=0.055 p=0.006 p=0.328 p=0.087 MCC7 Χ2 =32.087 df:6 Χ2 =24.571 df:5 Χ2 =58.075 df:6 Χ2 =29.853 df:5 Χ2 =9.6227 df:5 - p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001 p=0.087

TABLE 2. Number of specimens and taxa of small mammals found at Moncucco Torinese with value of the diversity (Shannon) index for each studied sample. Chiropterans are excluded.

 MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 Total Specimens (N) 257 235 1262 784 604 543 3685 Taxa (N) 16 16 18 17 16 18 24 Shannon (H’) 2.094 2.141 2.063 2.177 2.151 2.193 2.157

TABLE 3. Estimated paleoclimatic values of MCC according to three different methodologies based on small mammals (see Material and methods for further details). MAP: Mean Annual Precipitation; MINP: Precipitation in the driest month; MAT: Mean Annual Temperature; MTW: Mean Temperature of the Warmest month; MTC: Mean Temperature of the Coldest month; SE: Standard Error.

 Methodology Hernández Fernández (2001) Van Dam (2006) Montuire et al. (2006) Proxy Rodents Small mammals Murids Results SE Results SE Results SE MAP 967.9 mm ±470.6 mm 849.8 mm ±350-400 mm - - MINP - - 41.5 mm ±17-19 mm - - MAT 16.2° C ±3.6° C - - 17.2° C ±4.8°C MTW 24.4° C ±4.7° C - - - - MTC 8.2° C ±5.1° C - - - -