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FIGURE 1. Fossil locations and fossil ages. A, yellow points indicate the locations of fossil floras. The numbered red lines indicate the regional vegetation of southeastern China (background picture by GeoMapApp:; the vegetation division after Zhang et al., 2007): 1, tropical rainforest and humid rainforest; 2, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest; 3, warm temperate deciduous oak forest; B, fossil ages of the Toupi flora (17 - 14 Ma) and Shengxian flora (10.5 ± 0.5 Ma).





FIGURE 2. Example for a replenished fossil leaf. The yellow line is the outline of the original fossil. The blue line is the outline of replenished leaf (the leaf reconstruction was visually based on taxon specific gross morphology, Toumoulin et al., 2020). The petiole width was determined at the region of the insertion point (Traiser et al., 2018); Scale bar equals 1 cm.





FIGURE 3. Distribution of the leaf size classes in the Toupi flora and Shengxian flora.





FIGURE 4. Selected climate parameters of CLAMP (error bars indicate a reasonable uncertainty of plus or minus 2 °C) and previous CA analyses (Yao et al., 2011). A, the temperature of the Toupi flora and Shengxian flora; MAT, mean annual temperature; WMMT, warm month mean temperature; CMMT, cold month mean temperature.; B, the precipitation of the Toupi flora and Shengxian flora; GSP, growing season precipitation; MAP, mean annual precipitation; X3.WET, precipitation during the three wettest months; X3.DRY, precipitation during the three driest months.