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FIGURE 1. Locality map and stratigraphy of the Posidonienschiefer Formation at Holzmaden, showing the distribution of coccolepidids in the formation. (A) Simplified map of Germany showing the location of Stuttgart. (B) State map of Baden-Württemberg showing regional exposure of the Posidonienschiefer Formation with the Holzmaden area indicated with a star. (C) Map of the Holzmaden area with a star indicating the collection locality. (D) Stratigraphic log of the Posidonienschiefer Formation at Holzmaden showing the collection horizon for the new coccolepidid fish. Modified from Cooper et al. (2022).




FIGURE 2. SMNS 59978, †Toarcocephalus morlok gen. et sp. nov. (holotype), preserved in left internal view. (A), imperfect skull exposed in internal view. (B), line drawing of specimen. Abbreviations: br = branchiostegal rays; chy = ceratohyal; cl? = cleithrum?; d = dentary; dpal = dermopalatine; dpt = dermopterotic; dsph = dermosphenotic; enpt = endopterygoid; esc = extrascalpular; hhy = hypohyal; hyo = hyomandibula; io.c = infraorbital sensory canal; j = jugal; mx = maxilla; op = opercle; p = parietal; pmx = premaxilla; pop = preopercle; scl = supracleithrum; sc.l = lateral line scales; sop = subopercle. Scale bar equals 10 mm.




FIGURE 3. SMNS 52044, †Toarcocephalus morlok gen. et sp. nov. (paratype), skull and post-cranial elements preserved in ventro-lateral (left) view as a regurgitalite. (A), overview of specimen - skull exposed in left ventrolateral view. Much of the orbital region has been infilled with resin. (B), interpretive line drawing. Abbreviations: an = antorbital; ag = angular; cbl? = ceratobranchial?; chy = ceratohyal; cl = cleithrum; d = dentary; dpt = dermopterotic; esc = extrascapular; fr = frontals; g = gular plate; ha/nur = haemal/ neural arches and spines; hbl? = hypobranchials?; hyo = hyomandibula; ptr? = pterygiophores; = mandibular sensory canal; mpt = metapterygoid; mx = maxilla; na? = nasal?; op = opercle; pop = preopercle; scu? = preanal scute?; scr = sclerotic ring plate; sop = subopercle; t = teeth. Scale bar is equal to 20 mm.





FIGURE 4.Toarcocephalus morlok gen. et sp. nov., details of jaws, palatoquadrate, and teeth. (A) maxillary teeth in SMNS 52044 - notice the smooth texture of the bone externa. Please note that some of the smaller damaged teeth on the maxilla are highlighted. (B) close-up of left palate, upper and lower jaws of SMNS 59978. (C), line drawing with surrounding matrix highlighted with false colour. Abbreviations: ag = angular; chy = ceratohyal; d = dentary; ecpt = ectopterygoid; enpt = endopterygoid; dpal = dermopalatine; hhy = hypohyal; mpt = metapterygoid; mx = maxilla; pmx = premaxilla; pmx.t = toothed region of premaxilla; scr = sclerotic ring; t = tooth crowns. Scale bars equal 10 mm.





FIGURE 5.Toarcocephalus morlok gen. et sp. nov., details of the pectoral girdle and lateral line. Holotype specimen SMNS 59978, photograph (A) and line drawing (B). Abbreviations: hyo = hyomandibula; lsc = lateral line sensory canal; mx = maxilla; op = opercle; pop = preopercle; ppscl = dorsal process of the supracleithrum; pu = punctations; sc.l = lateral line scales; scl = supracleithrum (.r = right;.l = left); sop = subopercle. Scale bar equals 5 mm.





FIGURE 6. Cranial reconstruction of †Toarcocephalus morlok gen. et sp. nov. with missing regions based on reconstruction of ‘Coccolepis’ liassica in Gardiner (1960). Missing or speculative areas are indicated with a dashed line and coloured in grey. Abbreviations: ag = angular; an = antorbital; br = branchiostegal rays; cl = cleithrum; d = dentary; dpt = dermopterotic; dsph = dermosphenotic; esc = extrascapular; g = gular plate; hyo = hyomandibula; io.c = infraorbital sensory canal; j = jugal; msc = mandibular sensory canal; mx = maxilla; na = nasal; nar = external naris; op = opercle; poc = postorbital canal; pop = preopercle; ro = rostral; scl = supracleithrum; scr = sclerotic ring; sop= subopercle.





FIGURE 7. Palaeoart depiction of †Toarcocephalus morlok gen. et sp. nov. swimming in the twilight of the Posidonia Shale Sea. The post-cranium is based on †‘Coccolepis’ liassica and †Coccolepis bucklandi. Artwork by S. Cooper.