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Original references of analyzed specimens. See Figure 3 and Table 1.


Andrews, R.C. 1914. The California Gray Whale (Rhachianectes Glaucus Cope), its history, habits, external anatomy, osteology and relationship. Monographs of the Pacific Cetacea. Vols. 1-5, 1. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History.

Arnold, P., Marsh, H., and Heinsohn, G. 1987. The occurrence of two forms of minke whales in east Australian waters with a description of external characters and skeleton of the diminutive or dwarf form. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 38:1–46.

Bisconti, M. 2010. New description of “Megaptera” hubachi Dathe, 1983 based on the holotype skeleton held in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale de Livorno, 23:37–-68. 10.4457/musmed.2010.23.37.

Bouetel, V. and de Muizon, C. 2006. The anatomy and relationships of Piscobalaena nana (Cetacea, Mysticeti), a Cetotheriidae s. s. from the early Pliocene of Peru. Geodiversitas, 28:319–-395.

Cope, E. 1871. On Megaptera bellicosa. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 12:103–-108. JSTOR.

Evans EvoMorph Lab. 2020. Retrieved from

Gol’din, P., Startsev, D., and Krakhmalnaya, T. 2014. The anatomy of Cetotherium riabinini Hofstein, 1948, a baleen whale from the late Miocene of Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59:795–-814.

Kienle, S.S., Ekdale, E.G., Reidenberg, J.S., and Deméré, T.A. 2015. Tongue and hyoid musculature and functional morphology of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus). The Anatomical Record, 298:660–-674. Wiley Online Library.

Nakamura, G. and Hidehiro, K. 2014. Osteological characteristics of gray whales Eschrichtius robustus collected from the coast of Japan (1990-2005) and possible population mixing with eastern gray whales in the western North Pacific. Honyurui kagaku, 54:73–-88.

Nishiwaki, M. and Kasuya, T. 1970. A Greenland right whale caught at Osaka Bay. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 22:45–-62.

Nishiwaki, M. and Kasuya, T. 1971. Osteological note of an Antarctic sei whale. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 23:83–9.

Okazaki, Y. 2012. A new mysticete from the upper Oligocene Ashiya Group, Kyushu, Japan and its significance to mysticete evolution. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Series A (Natural History), 10:129–-152.

Omura, H. 1958. North Pacific right whale. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 13:1–-52.

Omura, H. 1964. A systematic study of the hyoid bones in the baleen whales. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 18:149–-170.

Omura, H., Ichihara, T., and Kasuya, T. 1970. Osteology of pygmy blue whale with additional information on external and other characteristics. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 22:1–-27.

Omura, H., Kasuya, T., Kato, H., and Wada, S. 1981. Osteological study of the Bryde’s whale from the central South Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 33:1–-26.

Omura, H., Ohsumi, S., Nemoto, T., Nasu, K., and Kasuya, T. 1969. Black right whales in the North Pacific. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, 21:1–-78.

Rosel, P.E., Wilcox, L.A., Yamada, T.K., and Mullin, K.D. 2021. A new species of baleen whale (Balaenoptera) from the Gulf of Mexico, with a review of its geographic distribution. Marine Mammal Science, 37:577–-610. Wiley Online Library.

Satake, Y. and Omura, H. 1974. A taxonomic study of the minke whale in the Antarctic by means of hyoid bone. Scientific Reports of the Whale Research Institute Tokyo, 15–-24.

Shinohara, S. 2011. Hyoid bones of the baleen whale. Annual report of Numata Fossil Museum, 18–-23.


MANOVA in the PCA.

MANOVA PC1 and 2 in prey types
Wilks´ lambda: 0.3934 Pillai trace: 0.6205
df1: 6 df1: 6
df2: 162 df2: 164
F: 16.05 F: 12.29
p (same): 1.91E-14 p (same): 2.10E-11
MANOVA PC1 and 2 in feeding tactics
Wilks´ lambda: 0.7072 Pillai trace: 0.3066
df1: 6 df1: 6
df2: 162 df2: 164
F: 5.107 F: 4.948
p (same): 7.88E-05 p (same): 0.000111