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927 tocaBozorgnites nom. nov. and Crassispirellina nom. nov.: New names for the preoccupied foraminiferal genera Bozorgniella and Crassispirella

Daniel Vachard, François Le Coze, Pedro Cózar, and Jérémie Gaillot

Article number: 22.1.4
Copyright Paleontological Society, January 2019

Author biographies
Plain-language and multi-lingual abstracts
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Submission: 21 September 2018. Acceptance: 20 December 2018

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The name Bozorgniella Cózar and Vachard, 2001 is preoccupied by the nummulitid foraminifer Bozorgniella Rahaghi, 1973 and is replaced here by Bozorgnites Cózar, Vachard and Le Coze. The name Crassispirella Gaillot and Vachard, 2007 is preoccupied by the gastropod subgenus Crassispira (Crassispirella) Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 and is replaced here by Crassispirellina Gaillot, Vachard and Le Coze. In addition to these nomenclatural revisions, emended diagnoses for both genera are proposed here.

Daniel Vachard. 1 rue des Tilleuls, 59152 Gruson, France.
François Le Coze. World Foraminifera Database, 80 rue Jean Parot, 42100 Saint-Etienne, France.
Pedro Cózar. Instituto de Geociencias CSIC-UCM, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Jérémie Gaillot. Team-Leader - Biostratigraphy, EXPLORATION-PRODUCTION, Division Techniques d’Exploration, TOTAL S.A., EP/EXPLO/GTS/ISS/BGM, Avenue Larribau, 64018 Pau, France.

Key words: foraminifera; new genus names; Mississippian; Lopingian; phylogenetic trends

Final citation: Vachard, Daniel, Le Coze, François, Cózar, Pedro, and Gaillot, Jérémie. 2019. Bozorgnites nom. nov. and Crassispirellina nom. nov.: new names for the preoccupied foraminiferal genera Bozorgniella and Crassispirella. Palaeontologia Electronica 22.1.4A 1-6.

Copyright: January 2019 Paleontological Society.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Two replacement names are proposed for two preoccupied foraminiferal genera.

The name Bozorgniella Cózar and Vachard, 2001 is preoccupied by the nummulitid foraminifer Bozorgniella Rahaghi, 1973 and is replaced here by Bozorgnites Cózar, Vachard and Le Coze. The name Crassispirella Gaillot and Vachard, 2007 is preoccupied by the gastropod subgenus Crassispira (Crassispirella) Bartsch and Rehder, 1939 and is replaced here by Crassispirellina Gaillot, Vachard and Le Coze. In addition to these nomenclatural revisions, emended diagnoses of both genera are proposed here.


Phylum FORAMINIFERA d’Orbigny, 1826
Class FUSULINATA von Möller, 1878 nomen correctum Vachard, Krainer, and Lucas, 2013
Subclass FUSULINANA von Möller, 1878 nomen translatum Maslakova, 1990
nomen correctum Vachard, Pille, and Gaillot, 2010
Order FUSULINIDA von Möller, 1878 nomen translatum Vachard, Krainer, and Lucas, 2013
Superfamily STAFFELLOIDEA Miklukho-Maklay, 1949 nomen translatum Solovieva, 1978
Family PSEUDOENDOTHYRIDAE Mamet in Mamet, Mikhailoff, and Mortelmans, 1970
Subfamily EOPARASTAFFELLINAE Vachard and Arefifard, 2015
Genus BOZORGNITES Cózar, Vachard, and Le Coze pro Bozorgniella Cózar and Vachard, 2001 emend.

Etymology. As Bozorgniella, Bozorgnites is named in honor of Dr. Fathollah Bozorgnia, who described the type species. The genus is masculine.

s figure1aType Species. Dainella tumultuosa Bozorgnia, 1973 (Figure 1). The holotype (Figure 1.3) is deposited in the collections of the Geological Laboratories of the National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran.

Diagnosis. Test free, asymmetrical, with the last volution semi-evolute to evolute. Permanent deviations of the axis of coiling, varying up to 45° in the internal volutions, and reaching 90° for the last volution. Strong chomata. Wall coarsely granular and relatively brownish. Rounded periphery in the last whorl, subcarinate periphery in the inner whorls.

Comparisons. Bozorgnites nom. nov. differs from Eoparastaffellina by the subcarinate inner whorls and from Eoparastaffella by the rounded periphery of the last whorl (Vachard and Arefifard, 2015).

Other species. Monotypic.

Occurrence. Endemic to Alborz (Iran), where it seems to be latest Tournaisian and/or early Visean in age.

Remarks. The genus Bozorgniella/Bozorgnites was introduced as a transitional form between the Dainellidae and the Eoparastaffellinae, but this hypothesis was refuted by Devuyst (2006), because, in Iran, Bozorgnites appears after the first Eoparastaffellina. As a result, Bozorgnites is most probably transitional between Eoparastaffellina (with an ancestral rounded periphery) and true (i.e., carinate) Eoparastaffella. On the other hand, due to its strong deviations of the axis, coarse wall, and very sharp chomata, Bozorgnites is also possibly transitional to Pojarkovella and its plexus, which are relatively common in Iran (Zandkarimi et al., 2014) and South China (Hance et al., 2011).

Class ?MILIOLATA Saidova, 1981
Order MILIOLIDA Delage and Hérouard, 1896
Suborder MILIOLINA Delage and Hérouard, 1896
Superfamily CORNUSPIROIDEA Schultze, 1854
Family NEODISCIDAE Lin, 1984 nomen translatum Gaillot and Vachard, 2007
Genus CRASSISPIRELLINA Gaillot, Vachard and Le Coze pro Crassispirella Gaillot and Vachard, 2007 emend.

Etymology. Derivative of Crassispirella from Latin crassus (= fat), spira (= spire); i.e., thick-walled. The genus is feminine.

s figure2Type Species. Crassispirella hughesi Gaillot and Vachard, 2007 (Figure 2). The holotype (plate 58, figure 10 in Gaillot and Vachard, 2007 = Figure 2.2 herein) is deposited in the collection of Total Company, Pau (France).

Diagnosis. Test consisting of a proloculus followed by an undivided chamber. Planispiral coiling evolute. Some initial whorls are faintly glomospirally coiled. Aperture terminal simple. Thick porcellaneous wall bilayered with a darker tectum and an inner thicker greyish layer.

Other species. Hemigordius? sp. A sensu Ueno (2001, plate 2, figures 19-20); H.? sp. B sensu Ueno (2001, plate 2, figure 23).

Occurrence. Late Changhsingian of Saudi Arabia; late Changhsingian of South China; Changhsingian of Turkey (Hazro); Lopingian of Persian Gulf (Gaillot and Vachard, 2007).

Remarks. Crassispirellina nomen novum is a planispiral evolute Neodiscidae that mimics several characters of cornuspirids, but fundamentally differs from the cornuspirids by its bilayered wall with a dark tectum and a thick and clear inner layer (very visible in the penulminate whorl of the holotype: Figure 2.2). Crassispirellina differs from other neodiscids by its planispiral coiling, and its test is discoid and biumbilicate. It encompasses several homeomorphous genera among the cornuspirids, which differ by their unilayered wall microstructure (e.g., Cornuspira, Postcladella, and Hoyenella); but all of these genera are very small-sized.

On the other hand, Megacrassispirella Zhang in Zhang et al. (2016) has been described as being similar to Crassispirella. Crassispirellina differs from Megacrassispirella by its smaller size and smaller number of whorls. Nevertheless, some paratypes of Crassispirellina hughesi (Figure 2.1, 2.6) are possibly transitional to Megacrassispirella. The similarity between both genera is confirmed herein, and it could also be possible that Megacrassispirella belongs to the family Neodiscidae and not to the Agathammininae, as originally stated. Alternatively, for classifications not based on the importance of the wall microstructure, an assignment of both genera to the Cornuspirinae might be acceptable.

Moreover, a poorly known genus, very large and described as bilayered, Kozhimia Igonin, 1998, could be theoretically similar to Crassispirellina. However, this possible priority cannot be sustained for the following reasons. First, the two genera are of different ages: Kozhimia is Ufimian (early Middle Permian), whereas Crassispirellina is latest Permian in age. Second, the bilayered wall of Kozhimia is not precisely described nor visible on the unique illustration of Igonin (1998). Third, Kozhimia is only illustrated in equatorial section, and its perpendicular axial section remains hypothetically described in the text. Lastly, Kozhimia was never redescribed after its creation, which makes any further comparison purely hypothetical. In reality, Kozhimia seems to be more related to these large, late Early Permian and Middle Permian genera originally described as Hemigordius sensu Grozdilova, 1956, sensu Rauzer-Chernousova in Akopian (1974), and sensu Kobayashi (2002, figures 9.19, 9.20); secondly as Neodiscus sensu Ueno (1992); thirdly as Neohemigordius sp. sensu Kobayashi (1993, plate 1, figure 3); and fourthly as Uralogordius Gaillot and Vachard (2007) synonym of “Arenovidalina” sensu Baryshnikov et al. (1982) not Ho (1959). Furthermore, the holotype of Kozhimia has similarities with the transverse section of Hemigordius discoideus Reitlinger, 1950, illustrated by this author (plate 3, figure 14) from the Myachkovian (latest Moscovian) of Russia.

Compared with the evolutionary scheme of the Tournayellida sensu Hance et al. (2011), the relationships of Crassispirellina and Cornuspira are similar to those of Eoforschia and Eotournayella. Similarly, in foraminiferal history, a phylogenetic lineage, existing among the Loeblichioidea, which initially displayed a very deviated coiling (e.g., in Dainella or Pojarkovella), leads finally to Loeblichia, which is a planispiral and evolute genus. As a consequence, Crassipirellina is maintained here in the Neodiscidae, even if the coilings of Neodiscus and Crassispirellina are very different.

No biological or paleobiological explanations have been given for such patterns of evolution: gigantism in the planispirally evolute lineages; adoption of a discoid planispirally coiled test in lineages initially nautiloid to subglobular and with strong deviations of the coiling axis. This is a very interesting issue in the evolution of the foraminifera.


Two genera, Bozorgniella and Crassispirella, which have an interesting phylogenetic significance, although they are probably endemic and/or rarely cited in the literature, are renamed as Bozorgnites nomen novum and Crassispirellina nomen novum. Their renaming is followed by their redescription and revision.


Thanks to A.B. Doweld for providing several Russian references, to K. Ueno, L. Spencer and the Editorial Board of Palaeontologia Electronica for their constructive criticisms and advice.


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