Article number: 22.2.26
Copyright Paleontological Society, May 2019
Submission: 19 July 2018. Acceptance: 11 April 2019
In 2017, the archives of the Palaeontological Collection Of Tübingen, Germany, were fully catalogued. This process revealed a large number of drawings, letters, notes, manuscripts, photo plates, and documents going as far back as the early nineteeth century and ending in modern times. The archive provides insight to the state of mind, the scientific state of art, and the life histories of some famous palaeontologists and geologists in Tübingen. These people include Friedrich August von Quenstedt, Wilhelm Branco (Wilhelm von Branca), Ernst Hermann Friedrich Koken, Josef Felix Pompeckj, Edwin Hennig, Friedrich Richard Freiherr von Hoyningen Huene, Otto Heinrich Schindewolf, Alfred Eisenack, Georg Wagner, Jost Wiedmann, Wolf-Ernst Reif, Adolf Seilacher, and Hans Gocht. By this publication, we make the archives available for international research and provide insights to the history of one of the largest university collections of the world.
Juliane K. Hinz. Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Hölderlinstraße 12, D-72074 Tübingen, Germany.
Ingmar Werneburg. Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Hölderlinstraße 12, D-72074 Tübingen, Germany and Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment (HEP) at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Sigwartstraße 10, D- 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
Keywords: history of science; letters; palaeontology; fossils; Germany
Hinz, Juliane K. and Werneburg, Ingmar. 2019. The historical archive of the Palaeontological Collection Of Tübingen, Germany. Palaeontologia Electronica 22.2.26A 1-94. https://doi.org/10.26879/907
Copyright: May 2019 Paleontological Society.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0), which permits users to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, provided it is not used for commercial purposes and the original author and source are credited, with indications if any changes are made.
Archives provide a key to understand the development of an institute or museum and give insight to the local contribution to the history of sciences. The archive described here is part of the Palaeontological Collection of the Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen. Today, it belongs to the Department of Geosciences (Fachbereich Geowissenschaften), which is part of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and is curated by the ‘Senckenberg Center of Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment an der Universität Tübingen’. The archive was catalogued in 2017 by the authors and moved to the university archive in 2018, where it is now stored under monitored conditions. The archive is now accessable to the public and to scientists. In this paper, we provide a short overview on the history of the Palaeontological Collection Of Tübingen. We also provide short biographies of the persons represented by documents in the collections’ archive, and, finally, we provide a detailed list of documents available in the archive itself (Table 1-Table 2, Appendix 1).
THE PALAEONTOLOGICAL COLLECTION of TÜBINGEN
Documents on the history of the Department of Geology and the Palaeontological Collection are listed in Table 1 and Appendix 1. In the earliest years (1477-1837), lectures on natural sciences, and later on mineralogy and geognosy were provided by the Faculty of Philosophy and the Faculty of Medicine (von Engelhardt and Hölder, 1977). Only a small teaching collection was present at the time. In 1837, the appointment of Friedrich August von Quenstedt as Associate Professor for Mineralogy and Geognosy promoted these disciplines from being ancillary sciences of medicine to standalone disciplines. This laid the foundation for the development of the Department of Geosciences, the Palaeontological Collection, and for their archives, which are preserved from von Quenstedt’s time until now.
Von Quenstedt’s extensive travels and collecting activities led to a rapid increase in specimen numbers. In 1838 and 1839, three private collections of unknown source were acquired and integrated to the Palaeontological Collection. In 1841, von Quenstedt already listed 17,491 inventory numbers in the first preserved catalogue of the collection (archive number 207, see below). During his lifetime, he increased the collection volume to more than 70,000 inventory numbers. Some of them were assigned to single specimens; some were assigned to lots of up to 100 fossils.
In March 1838, the Faculty of Philosophy provided resources for the “Cabinets of Prof. von Quenstedt”. The newly built auditorium (Neue Aula; Geschwister-Scholl-Platz, previously Wilhelmstraße 7-9) resulted in empty space in the old auditorium (Alte Aula; Münzgasse 30, Figure 1.1). Von Quenstedt’s institute and collection moved to the lower floor of this building, where it was displayed in two rooms. The move resulted in a split between the Zoological Collection and the Palaeontological Collection, which previously shared one room (von Quenstedt, 1889; Weber, 2016). The rooms in the new auditorium, dark and wet, soon became too small for the fast growing collection (von Engelhardt and Hölder, 1977).
After the death of Quenstedt in 1889, Wilhelm Branco was appointed as Professor for Geology and Palaeontology. He retired after only four years in 1894.
Under his successor, Ernst von Koken, a new building was dedicated to the Geological and Palaeontological Institute in 1903 (Sigwartstraße 10, Figure 1.2 and 1.3) and the collection moved to this new building (Hennig, 1923). Donations as well as new acquisitions led to a fast increase in specimen numbers. Von Koken wanted to open the collection to the public (von Koken, 1905), bought some of the largest pieces and brought them to display, still present today. The pieces include a giant black shale slab with crinoids (the so called “Schwäbisches Medusenhaupt” [Swabian Medusa head]) (Hölder, 1951), a complete shark skeleton (Hybodus), and the marine reptile Peloneustes. In 1904, several skeletons of other large marine reptiles (e.g., Cryptoclidus, Muraenosaurus, Ophthalmosaurus) were donated by the University of Oxford. An excavation in the Upper Cretaceous of North America by Sternberg led to the acquisition of a Mosasaurus skeleton and a large crinoid slab (Uintacrinus) (Hennig, 1923). In 1912, Ernst von Koken died at the age of 52.
His successor was C.F. Pompeckj, appointed in 1913, who acquired a large Chondrosteus skeleton (Actinopterygii), which is still on display at the Palaeontological Collection today. In 1917, Pompeckj was appointed as a Professor in Berlin and was replaced by Edwin Hennig in Tübingen.
Under Hennig’s patronage, excavations in Trossingen (1921-1923, Germany), Nusplingen (1929, Germany), Tendaguru (1934, Tansania), and Tübingen-Lustnau (1934, 1936, 1960, Germany), as well as the acquisition of several big collections and single objects like Ohmdenia and Trachymetopon, led to an extensive increase in specimen numbers.
Friedrich von Huene, a student of Ernst Koken, played a major role in the further development and expansion the Palaeontological Collection with vertebrate fossils collected during his extensive travels to South Africa, Argentina, and Brazil during the 1920s. Almost 10 years after his travels, von Huene mounted the outstanding skeletons of therapsid reptiles under a glass roof in a newly built annex at the institute’s backyard. In 1959, this therapsid hall was moved to the top floor of the institute, and the former therapsid hall is used as a magazine chamber.
After World War II, from which the medevial city centre of Tübingen (Figure 1.4) was spared, the institute diversified and developed quickly. Institute directors Otto Schindewolf, Alfred Eisenack, Georg Wagner, Jost Wiedmann, and Adolf Seilacher largely enriched the Palaeontological Collection with microfossils, ammonites, and ichnofossils. Today, the collection houses type and reference specimens of more than 2000 scientific publications and is one of the largest university collections in the world (Werneburg and Böhme, 2017). Currently, more than one million specimens fill two magazine chambers (230 m² each, Figure 2.4). On an exhibition area of roughly 690 m², many large fossils, and more than 100 historical collection showcases containing historical and modern collections are on display (Figure 2.5). A reorganization of the exhibition as ‘nature museum’, incorporating the zoological and mineralogical collections of Universität Tübingen, is planned for the next years. The collection still grows by private donations and through fieldwork undertaken by the current institute members.
Documents from the following institute members are available in the archive as listed in Table 2 and Appendix 1. A completely searchable version of the Appendix can be downloaded as a Supplement file. Persons are ordered by the year they started their active time as permanent staff members in Tübingen. We wish to note that these researchers, although colorful figures of the institutes past, are not a full representation of the long and diverse history of the institute. A comprehensive history of the institute until 1976 as well as comprehensive biographies were provided by von Engelhardt and Hölder (1977) and are summarized below.
1837-1889: Friedrich August von Quenstedt
(* July 9th, 1809 in Eisleben, Germany, † December 21st, 1889 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 3.1) studied geognosy and mineralogy at the Friedrich Wilhelm University (now named Humboldt University) of Berlin, Germany. He started working as a curator in 1833, wrote his first publication in 1835, and graduated on nautilids in 1836 (von Quenstedt, 1836). In 1937, von Quenstedt habilitated in Berlin and was appointed in the same year for the newly created associated professorship for geognosy and mineralogy at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, which was turned to a full professorship in 1841. He focused on indicator fossils and their use for stratigraphy (Werneburg, 2017). He published his extensive observations on Jurassic sediments of the Swabian Alb and its foreland in famous books such as “Der Schwäbische Jura” [The Swabian Jurassic] (Figure 2.1) (von Quenstedt, 1858) and “Ammoniten des Schwäbischen Jura” [Ammonites of the Swabian Jurassic] (von Quenstedt, 1885). Quenstedt also wrote a fossil compendium entitled “Handbuch der Petrefaktenkunde” [Handbook of fossil science] (Figure 2.2) (von Quenstedt, 1867), which largely influences palaeontologists until today. In two rooms in the old auditorium of the University, he displayed the Palaeontological Collection to the public and held popular scientific lectures to attract people to palaeontology. Von Quenstedt died in 1889 after 52 years as a professor. He laid the cornerstones for palaeontology as a science and for the Tübingen geology department. Today, Quenstedt is honored having streets and a school named after him. Several certificates, field notes, two big fossil collection books, and numerous exercise books handwritten by Quenstedt are preserved in the archives of the Palaeontological Collection.
1890-1894: Wilhelm Branco (Wilhelm von Branca)
(* September 9th, 1844 in Potsdam, Germany, † March 12th, 1928 in Munich, Germany; Figure 3.2) began studying geology in Halle an der Saale and in Heidelberg after a military career and a farm apprenticeship. He graduated in 1876 (Branca, 1877) and did postdoctoral work in Straßburg and Rome in the lab of Karl Alfred von Zittel (Mayr, 1989). After his habilitation in 1881, he worked as a private lecturer in Berlin and Aachen and finally became district geologist at the Prussian Geological Survey in Berlin (Quenstedt, 1955). His main research interests were stratigraphy, evolution of ammonites, volcanism, and palaeontology in general. He was appointed full professor at the Albertus-Universität Königsberg in 1887 and followed a call to the Chair of Geology and Palaeontology at the University of Tübingen in 1890, where he spent five years as a professor until he had to quit in 1894 due to a severe neurologic condition. After five years of convalescence, he was re-appointed as professor, first in Hohenheim and later in Berlin, where he stayed until 1917. He was a member of the Tendaguru Expedition (1910-1912) (Janensch, 1914). Postcards from Branco, as well as field notes are preserved in the archives of the Palaeontological Collection.
1895-1912: Ernst Hermann Friedrich von Koken
(* 29th of May 1860 in Braunschweig, Germany, † 21st of November 1912 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 3.3) began his studies of geology in 1879 at the University of Göttingen and switched to Zürich, Switzerland, and later to the Humboldt University of Berlin (former Friedrich Wilhelm University), where he graduated in 1884 under doctoral supervision of Wilhelm Dames and Ernst Beyrich. Afterwards, he worked as a research assistant at the Geological Palaeontological Institute of Berlin and habilitated in 1888. After three years of working as a private lecturer, von Koken was appointed as an associate professor at the University of Königsberg in 1891. There, he was the successor of Wilhelm Branco, who followed a call to the University of Tübingen. Von Koken was appointed in 1895 in Tübingen, when Wilhelm Branco left, succeeding him once more (Stolberg Wernigerode, 1964). In 1902, von Koken was involved in planning and moving to the new building of the Geological and Palaeontological Institute (Sigwartstraße 10), where he publicly displayed a large number of specimens of the Palaeontological Collection. His main interests were otoliths, brachiopods, gastropods, palaeogeography, and geology in general. He died at the young age of 52, while still a professor in Tübingen. Von Kokens vision of opening the collection to the public is still implemented today. His drawings and notes are preserved in the archives.
1913-1917: Josef Felix Pompeckj
(* May 10th, 1867 in Groß Köllen, now Poland, † July 8th, 1930 in Berlin, Germany; Figure 3.4) began his studies in geology and palaeontology at the University of Königsberg in 1885. He graduated in 1890 under doctoral supervision of Wilhelm Branco working on trilobites (Pompeckj, 1890). In the same year, he followed Branco to Tübingen and worked as his assistant. In 1894, he habilitated on ammonites in Munich at the chair of Karl Alfred von Zittel and continued as private lecturer. Ammonites, together with vertebrates, and palaeontology in general, remained Pompeckj’s main interests. In 1897, he became a curator at the Palaeontological State Collection of Munich and was appointed as an associate professor in 1903. After a short stay in Vienna, he was appointed at the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule Hohenheim in 1904. In 1907, he followed a call to Göttingen, where he first became associate professor. After six years in Göttingen, he obtained a full professorship at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen in 1913. He stayed in Tübingen until 1917 then went to Berlin as successor of Wilhelm Branco. The archives contain photographs and Pompeckj’s correspondence.
1917-1952: Edwin Hennig
(* April 27th, 1882 in Berlin, Germany, † November 12th 1977 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 4.1) began his studies of natural sciences, anthropology, and philosophy in 1902 at Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg where he graduated in pycnodonts in 1906 under doctoral supervision of Otto Jaekel. After finishing his dissertation, he went to Berlin and worked as an assistant to Wilhelm Branco at the Geological and Palaeontological Institute of the Humboldt University of Berlin, where he habilitated in 1913. He was a private lecturer until World War I and worked as military geologist during the war. In 1917, he was appointed full professor at Universität Tübingen, became its rector in 1929/1930, and was the director of the Geological Palaeontological Institute from 1917-1945. Hennig was a member of the first Tendaguru expedition under Janensch (1910-1912) and set up a second Tengaguru excavation in 1934. His extensive excavation activities led to a large increase in specimen number at the Palaeontological Collection. Hennig became a member of the NSDAP party in 1937 and was suspended from his chair in 1945 due to denazification processes after the end of World War II. He retired in 1952. A mounted skeleton of Kentrosaurus aethiopicus found in Tanzania, which is still on display at the Palaeontological Collection, as well as numerous texts, poems, and drawings that are stored in the archives, are reminders of Hennig’s work.
1898-1969: Friedrich Richard Freiherr von Hoyningen Huene
(* March 22nd, 1875 in Tübingen, Germany, April † 4th, 1969 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 4.2) studied, graduated on brachiopods, and habilitated at Universität Tübingen. He began working as a scientist and lecturer in 1899 (Maisch, 1999) and began focusing on vertebrates. He became principal conservator in 1925 and donated most of his private collection with fossil saurians to the university (von Huene, 1944; Maisch, 2014). He was appointed honorary professor in Tübingen in 1945 (Dobat, 1983). During more than six decades as a researcher, von Huene became a widely known expert for dinosaurs, other fossil reptiles, and members of the mammalian stem lineage (Synapsida). His extensive travels within Germany, to several South American countries, and to South Africa culminated in a large number of species descriptions (Wagner, 1972) and reviewed publications (von Huene, 1932; von Huene, 1935; 1956). Von Huene excavated the famous holotypes of the therapsids Stahleckeria potens (Figure 2.3) and Chiniquodon brasilensis in Brazil, which are still on display in the Palaeontological Collection. He named more new species at the beginning of the twentieth century than anybody else (von Huene, 1944; Turner, 2009). To honor von Huene’s outstanding work, a brachiopod genus (Huenella; Walcott, 1901) and a dinosaur species (Lufengosaurus huenei; Young,1941) were named after him. An enormous amount of manuscripts, drawings, photographs, notes, correspondence, and family related documents are preserved in the archives.
1946-1953: Georg Wagner
(* July, 26th 1885 in Künzelsau, Germany, † July 11th, 1972 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 4.3) was trained as an elementary school teacher in Künzelsau and worked in this profession until 1905. He graduated from high in 1906 and began studying mathematics and natural sciences in 1910 after his military service. Wagner graduated in 1911 on the Muschelkalk in Franconia. After his graduation, he worked as a teacher in Schwäbisch Hall and was appointed professor at the teacher’s school in Nagold. In 1925, Wagner became professor for geology, biology, and chemistry in Stuttgart. During this time, he focused on the geology of the Swabian-Franconian cuesta and the geological history of this landscape. He regularly held lectures at Universität Tübingen and was appointed an associate professor there in 1946. Wagner kept this position until he retired in 1953. He published his work in over 300 publications and books. His legacy, an enormous amount of photo plates of geology, palaeontology, people, and landscapes, is preserved in the archives of the Palaeontological Collection Of Tübingen.
1948-1964: Otto Heinrich Schindewolf
(* June 7th, 1896 in Hannover, Germany, † June 10th, 1971 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 4.4) began studying geology at Universität Göttingen in 1914. He had to interrupt his studies due to World War I and continued his studies at the Universität Marburg, where he graduated on Upper Devonian ammonites in 1919 under the doctoral supervision of Rudolf Wedekind. Schindewolf habilitated in 1921 while being assistant to Wedekind and was appointed as assistant professor in Marburg in 1927. In the same year, he became head of Palaeozoology at the Prussian Geological Survey in Berlin. He was appointed full professor at Humboldt Universität Berlin in 1947 and changed to the Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen in 1948 (von Engelhardt and Hölder, 1977). He was the director of the institute until he retired in 1964 (Dobat, 1983). He mainly focused on corals and ammonites and became widely known for supporting saltationism-like macroevolution. His theory of typostrophism, which divided evolution of species into three phases (typogenesis: evolution of new species, typostasis: maintenance of species, and typolysis: splitting of species and degeneration) (Schindewolf, 1945; 1950) was and still is widely known. To substantiate his theories, he traveled extensively to Salt Range, Pakistan, where he examined the Permotriassic mass extinction. Schindewolf’s correspondence, notes, and detailed documents about his daily university life are preserved in the archives.
1951-1957: Alfred Eisenack
(* May 13th, 1891 in Altfelde, now: Poland, † April 19th, 1982 in Reutlingen, Germany; Figure 5.1) studied geology starting in 1911 at the Universität Jena, Germany and moved to Universität Königsberg in 1913. World War I interrupted his studies. He volunteered for military service and was captured after the Battle of Lodz. In several years of Russian captivity, he met other geologists and was trained by them. He returned to Germany in 1920 and continued his studies in Königsberg. Instead of finishing his studies, he underwent a teacher’s education and worked as a teacher for mathematics and natural sciences from 1925 to 1940. During this time, Eisenack worked on Silurian und Ordovician microfossils from Scandinavia. He first published on this topic in 1930 (A. Eisenack, 1930) and became a lecturer at Universität Königsberg in 1942. In 1945, Eisenack was again captured and spent several years in Russian captivity. He was appointed as associate professor in 1951 at the Universität Tübingen (Gocht and Sarjeant, 1983). In Tübingen, he focused on dinoflagellates, graptolites, hystricospheres, and chitinozoans. His maginificent drawings of dinoflagellates and their theca patterns, and the aforementioned microfossils are preserved in the archives of the Palaeontological Collection.
1960-1993: Jost Wiedmann
(* March 31st, 1931 in Breslau, Poland, † December 2nd, 1993 in Tübingen, Germany) studied geology in Berlin and at Universität Tübingen from 1950 until 1955. He graduated in 1960 under the supervision of Otto Schindewolf, habilitated in 1965, and was appointed a full professorship in 1979. Wiedmann was one of the leading taxonomists of his time. His main focus were Cretaceous ammonites (Wiedmann, 1962), especially from Spain and the Mediterranean. He published over 150 papers and books and was an active member of palaeontological societies and of the German Stratigraphic Commission. A large number of collected ammonites from Wiedmann is preserved in the magazines of the Palaeontological Collection Of Tübingen. Wiedmann died at the age of 63. Two years after his death, an honorary symposium on Cretaceous Ammonites was held at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen. Wiedmann’s work about ammonites helped to refine and increase the knowledge about the stratigraphy of the Cretaceous. His outstanding collection of ammonites fills a whole room and still yields a big knowledge base for researchers from all over the world.
1964-1990: Adolf Seilacher
(* February 24th, 1925 in Stuttgart, Germany, † April 26th, 2014 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 5.2) began studying geology at Universität Tübingen in 1945 and graduated in 1951 under doctoral supervision of Otto Schindewolf on ichnology. In 1957, he temporarily worked at Universität Frankfurt and afterwards at the University of Baghdad, before he habilitated on fossil calcareous sponges in 1962 (Seilacher, 1962). In 1964, Seilacher became the successor of Otto Schindewolf at Universität Tübingen. Parallel to this, Seilacher became adjunct professor at Yale University, USA, in 1984, where he spent the winter months of the year. He published over 200 publications and was mainly interested in ichnology, lagerstätten, constructional morphology, structuralism, and biostratinomy. He also built a bridge between science and art by creating the travelling exhibition “Fossil Art” (stored at Senckenberg Dresden, Germany), which displayed exceptionally beautiful ichnofossils under aesthetic aspects (Seilacher, 2013). The archives contain numerous documents, correspondence, notes, and information about Seilachers daily university life.
1968-1995: Hans Gocht
(* December 16th, 1930 in Ilmenau, Germany, † July 24th, 2014 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 5.3) left school early due to family obligations and began working as a porcelain painter. He always wanted to work as an academic and took on a job as cartographic tracer at the Geological Institute of Humboldt Universität Berlin in 1949. In 1950, he began working scientifically and taught himself palynology (Riding et al., 2015). His first publication on dinoflagellate cysts from Northern Germany followed in 1952 (Gocht, 1952). In 1953, Gocht began working as a drill site technician for a German oil drilling company in Barnstorf, former West Germany and became a technician at the company’s micropalaeontological laboratory in 1955. Encouraged by Alfred Eisenack, Hans Gocht studied at Freie Universität Berlin and graduated at the chair of Eisenack in 1968. He began working at the Geological Institute of Tübingen after his graduation and kept this job for the rest of his career. Hans Gocht’s outstanding drawings and photo plates (Gocht, 1972), as well as his scanning electron microscope images, are preserved in the archives of the Palaeontological Collection Of Tübingen.
1973-1996: Wolf-Ernst Reif
(* June 27th, 1945 in Heidenheim an der Brenz, Germany, † June 11th, 2009 in Tübingen, Germany; Figure 5.4) began studying geology at Universität Tübingen in 1965. He graduated under the supervision of Adolf Seilacher on fossil sharks in 1973 and became Seilacher’s assistant. Reif habilitated in 1982 on the odontode regulation theory. He was appointed as fixed-term Professor in 1984 and became full professor 1988. His research interests were multifaceted. Reif’s bionic studies on shark skin led to the creation of a grooved foil, which reduced kerosene consumption on planes of around 3% (Bechert and Reif, 1985). Besides bionics, Reif focused on palaeontology, evolutionary biology, science history, and evolutionary theory. Reif retired in 1996 for health reasons, but he continued publishing and giving lectures about Darwin after his retirement.
The oldest documents of the historic archives date back to the time of Friedrich August von Quenstedt (Table 1-Table 2, Appendix 1). The Palaeontological Collection kept the research notes written by Quenstedt himself at the institute. Documents up to 1910 are written in the old German Kurrent-handwriting. In 1911, German handwriting was simplified and changed to Sütterlin, which is easier to read (Sütterlin, 1907). From Quenstedt on, many letters, documents, and drawings of scientific staff were stored and archived. Posthumous document donations of friends, colleagues, and relatives led to a large increase in archived documents, but also helped to complete the history of the Palaeontologial Collection of Tübingen. Before 2017, most documents were stored and organized in a card-index cabinet, and the drawers were labeled with particular names (Appendix 1). Documents belonging to one subject were partly stored in blue archive folders. After detailed cataloging and sorting in 2017, the documents were stored in about 50 moving boxes (about 65x35x37cm each). In addition to paper documents, copper plates and large amounts of wooden and cardboard boxes containing slides, negatives, and photo plates were cataloged.
With this publication, the Institute for Geosciences provides information on these historical documents to the public and to interested researchers, who are invited to review this material for their own work.
We would like to thank the museum director Madelaine Böhme for providing the possibility to conduct this archive project. Special thanks also go to Frank Westphal, Sabine Kötter, and Thomas Lechner for providing help reading some old handwritings. We would also like to thank the archivists of Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Regina Keyler and Stefan Fink, for storing the documents listed in here. We thank Dieter Markert and Helga Petersen for the recent donation of documents from Friedrich von Huene, and we thank Frank Westphal for serving as mediator. For general discussion on the history of the Palaeontological Collection, we are embedded to Henrik Stöhr, Frank and Isolde Westphal, Erika Gocht, Edith Seilacher, and Hans Luginsland. We also thank Berthold Werner for taking the photograph of the Alte Aula. We are grateful to Ernst Seidl andand Edgar Bierende (MUT, Museum der Universität Tübingen, https://www.unimuseum.uni-tuebingen.de) for their generous and enduring support of Paläntologische Sammlung Tübingen.
Bechert, D. and Reif, W. 1985. On the drag reduction of the shark skin, Conference Proceedings of the 23rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno. pp. 546.
Branca, W. 1877. Die Vulkane des Herniker Landes bei Frosinone in Mittel-Italien. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.
Brenner, W., and Dürr, G. 1986. Neuffenia willei n. gen. n.sp., eine neue Peridiniaceae aus dem oberen Oxfordien Südwestdeutschlands. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Mh. 1986(1):11-15.
Dobat, K. 1983. Zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften in Tübingen: mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Forschung und Lehre an der Universität und den Schulen: eine Ausstellung im Frühjahr 1983, Städtische Sammlungen, Theodor-Haering-Haus. Universitätsstadt Tübingen, Tübingen.
Efremov, I. 1940a. Die Mesen-Fauna der permischen Reptilien. Neues Jahrbuch für Minerologie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen B, 84:379-466.
Efremov, I. 1940b. Kurze Übersicht über die Formen der Perm-und Trias-Tetrapoden-Fauna der UdSSR. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie Geologie und Paläontologie Abteilung B (12):372-383.
Eisenack, A. 1930. Neue Mikrofossilien des baltischen Silurs. Naturwissenschaften, 18(42):880-881.
Eisenack, A. 1935. Neue Graptolithen aus Geschieben baltischen Silurs. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 17(1-2):73-90.
Eisenack, A. 1939. Die Wandung fossiler Dinoflagellaten. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 93:81-6.
Eisenack, A. 1951. Retioliten aus dem Graptolithengestein. Palaeontographica Abteilung A:129-163.
Eisenack, A. 1954. Mikrofossilien aus Phosphoriten des samländischen Unteroligozäns und über die Einheitlichkeit der Hystrichosphaerideen. Palaeontographica Abteilung A (3-6):49-95
Eisenack, A. 1958a. Fossile Dinoflagellaten. Archiv Protisten, 104:43-50.
Eisenack, A. 1958b. Mikroplankton aus dem norddeutschen Apt nebst einigen Bemerkungen über fossile Dinoflagellaten. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 106(3):383-422.
Gocht, H. 1952. Hystrichosphaerideen und andere Kleinlebewesen aus Oligozanablagerungen Nordund Mitteldeutschlands. Geologie, 1(4):301-320.
Gocht, H. 1970. Dinoflagellaten-Zysten aus dem Bathonium des Erdölfeldes Alsdorf (NW-Deutschland). Palaeontographica Abteilung B(4-6):125-165.
Gocht, H. 1972. Zur Morphologie der Dinoflagellaten‐Gattung Nannoceratopsis Deflandre. Lethaia, 5(1):15-29.
Gocht, H. and Sarjeant, W.A. 1983. Pathfinder in palynology: Alfred Eisenack (1891-1982). Micropaleontology, 29(4):470-477.
Hennig, E. 1923. Führer durch die Sammlungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts der Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen: eine Anleitung für das Wissengebiet. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.
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